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Table of Contents
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
þ
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2023
or
o
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period
from ____________________to_________________________
Commission File Number: 0-261
ALICO, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Florida59-0906081
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
10070 Daniels Interstate Court, Suite 200, Fort Myers, FL
33913
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(239) 226-2000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common StockALCO
Nasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
oYes þ No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
oYes þ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. þYes o No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). þYes o No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:
Large Accelerated Filer
o
Emerging Growth Company
o
Accelerated Filer
þ
Non-accelerated filer
o
Smaller Reporting Company
þ
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. þ
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. þ
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No þ
The aggregate market value of the voting and nonvoting common equity held by non-affiliates based on the closing price, as quoted on the Nasdaq Global Select Market as of March 31, 2023 (the last business day of Alico’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was $183,907,706.
As of December 4, 2023, there were 7,616,081 shares of common stock, $1.00 par value per share outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference:
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement relating to its 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be filed with the SEC under Regulation 14A within 120 days after the end of the Registrants fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated.


Table of Contents
ALICO, INC.
FORM 10-K
For the year ended September 30, 2023
Item 1. Business
2

Table of Contents
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Annual Report”) contains certain forward-looking statements. We intend such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this Annual Report are forward-looking statements, including without limitation, statements regarding future actions, business plans and prospects, prospective products, trends, future performance or results of current and anticipated products, sales efforts, expenses, interest rates, the outcome of contingencies, such as legal proceedings, plans relating to dividends, government regulations, the adequacy of our liquidity to meet our needs for the foreseeable future and our expectations regarding market conditions. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates”, “estimates”, “projects,” “intends,” “plans” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. The forward-looking statements in this Annual Report are only predictions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report and are subject to a number of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements, including the factors described under the sections in this Annual Report titled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

You should read this Annual Report and the documents that we reference in this Annual Report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise. As used in this Annual Report, unless otherwise specified or the context otherwise requires, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company” and “Alico” refer to the operations of Alico, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

SUMMARY RISK FACTORS

Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those described in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report. You should carefully consider these risks and uncertainties, together with all of the other information contained in this Annual Report, when investing in our common stock. The principal risks and uncertainties affecting our business include the following:

Adverse weather conditions, natural disasters and other natural conditions, including the effects of climate change and hurricanes and tropical storms, particularly because our citrus groves are geographically concentrated in Florida, could impose significant costs and losses on our business and adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Our citrus groves are subject to damage and loss from disease including, but not limited to, citrus greening and citrus canker, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
A significant portion of our revenues are derived from our citrus business and any adverse event affecting such business could disproportionately harm our business.
Our failure to effectively perform grove management services, or to effectively manage an expanded portfolio of groves, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We depend on our relationship with Tropicana and Tropicana’s relationship with certain third parties for a significant portion of our business. Any disruption in these relationships could harm our revenue. Additionally, if certain criteria are not met under one of our contracts with Tropicana, we could experience a significant reduction in revenues and cash flows.
If we are unable to successfully develop and execute our strategic growth initiatives, or if they do not adequately address the challenges or opportunities we face, our business, financial condition and prospects may be adversely affected.
We are subject to the risk of product contamination and product liability claims.
Our agricultural operations are subject to water use regulations restricting our access to water.
Changes in immigration laws could impact our ability to harvest our crops.
Harm to our reputation could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If a transaction intended to qualify as a Section 1031 Exchange is later determined to be taxable, we may face adverse consequences, and if the laws applicable to such transactions are amended or repealed, we may not be able to dispose of properties in the future on a tax deferred basis.
We may undertake one or more significant corporate transactions that may not achieve their intended results, may adversely affect our financial condition and our results of operations, or result in unforeseeable risks to our business.
Our citrus business is seasonal.
Our earnings are sensitive to fluctuations in market supply and prices and demand for our products.
Climate change, or legal, regulatory, or market measures to address climate change, may negatively affect our business and operations.
ESG issues, including those related to climate change and sustainability, may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows and damage our reputation.
Increases in labor, personnel and benefits costs could adversely affect our operating results.
Increases in commodity or raw product costs, such as fuel and chemical costs, could adversely affect our operating results.
We are subject to transportation risks.
We benefit from reduced real estate taxes due to the agricultural classification of a majority of our land. Changes in the classification or valuation methods employed by county property appraisers could cause significant changes in our real estate property tax liabilities.
Liability for the use of fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and other potentially hazardous substances could increase our costs.
Compliance with applicable environmental laws may substantially increase our costs of doing business, which could reduce our profits.
Our business may be adversely affected if we lose key employees.
Material weaknesses and other control deficiencies relating to our internal control over financial reporting could result in errors in our reported results and could have a material adverse effect on our operations, investor confidence in our business and the trading price of our securities.
Macroeconomic conditions, such as rising inflation, the deadly conflicts in Ukraine and Israel, and the COVID-19 pandemic could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
System security risks, data protection breaches, cyber-attacks and systems integration issues could disrupt our internal operations or services provided to customers, and any such disruption could reduce our expected revenues, increase our expenses, damage our reputation and adversely affect our stock price.
We maintain a significant amount of indebtedness, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows, and may limit our operational and financing flexibility and negatively impact our business.
We may be unable to generate sufficient cash flow to service our debt obligations.
Some of our debt is based on variable rates of interest, which could result in higher interest expenses in the event of an increase in the interest rates.
We may not be able to continue to pay or maintain our cash dividends on our common stock and the failure to do so may negatively affect our share price.

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PART I
Item 1. Business
Overview

Alico was incorporated under the laws of the State of Florida in 1960. Alico is an agribusiness with a legacy of achievement and innovation in citrus and conservation. We own approximately 72,000 acres of land in eight Florida counties (Charlotte, Collier, DeSoto, Glades, Hardee, Hendry, Highlands and Polk), and also mineral rights throughout Florida. We hold these mineral rights on substantially all our owned acres, with additional mineral rights on other leased acres. Our principal lines of business are citrus groves and land management.
We are one of the largest citrus producers in the United States of America.
We operate two divisions: Alico Citrus, a citrus producer on its own land and as a manager of citrus groves for third parties, and Land Management and Other Operations, which includes land conservation, encompassing environmental services, land leasing and related support operations.

We manage our land based upon its primary usage and review its performance based upon two primary classifications - Alico Citrus and Land Management and Other Operations. The Alico Citrus division includes the production, cultivation and sale of citrus on our owned lands and as a manager of citrus groves for third parties. Land Management and Other Operations include leases for grazing rights, hunting leases, a farm lease, a lease to a third party of an aggregate mine, leases of oil extraction rights to third parties, and other miscellaneous operations generating income. We present our financial results and the related discussion based upon our two business segments: (i) Alico Citrus and (ii) Land Management and Other Operations.
Recent Developments
Florida Forever Program Land Sale
On September 18, 2023, we signed an Option Agreement for Sale and Purchase (“Option Agreement”) with the Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund of the State of Florida for the sale of 17,229 acres of the Alico Ranch. On September 21, 2023, Florida Governor Ron DeSantis and the Florida Cabinet approved the purchase of this land from Alico, under the Florida Forever Program, for approximately $77,600 thousand. The sale is expected to close between December 2023 and February 2024, and we intend to use the proceeds from this sale to repay variable rate debt and for general corporate purposes.

Hurricane Ian

On September 28, 2022, Hurricane Ian made landfall on the southwest coast of Florida and a majority of our groves were adversely impacted by the storm. The impact of Hurricane Ian has affected our year ended September 30, 2023 fruit production as we accelerated the harvest to maximize box production for both our Early and Mid-Season and Valencia harvest, which was completed earlier than the prior year harvest. Approximately 48,900 gross acres of our citrus groves, which are in Charlotte, Collier, DeSoto, Hardee, Hendry, Highlands and Polk Counties, sustained hurricane or tropical storm force winds for varying durations of time. While we lost a small percentage of trees, the force and duration of the storm impacted the majority of the groves. Based upon prior experience with serious storms of this nature, we expect it may take up to two full seasons or more for the groves to recover to pre-hurricane production levels.

We maintain crop insurance and property and casualty insurance and have received, as of September 30, 2023, $27,389 thousand in proceeds for crop claims and $839 thousand relating to property and casualty damage claims. These insurance proceeds are included as a reduction to operating expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Federal Relief Program – Hurricane Ian
In December 2022, the Consolidated Appropriations Act was signed into law by the federal government; however, the details of the mechanism and funding of any Hurricane Ian relief still remains unclear and, if available, the extent to which we will be eligible. We intend to take advantage of any such available programs as and when they become available. We are currently working with Florida Citrus Mutual, the industry trade group, and government agencies on the federal relief programs available as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act.

Citrus Greening Treatment

In 2022, we began testing a new application of the citrus greening therapy Oxytetracycline (“OTC”), which is used in citrus and other crops. Although not a cure for citrus greening, this OTC application is expected to mitigate some of the impacts of citrus greening and is expected to decrease the rate of fruit drop and improve fruit quality. After a review of the new application method by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (“FDACS”) granted a special local-need registration (24c) on October 28, 2022. We began treating our trees on
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January 16, 2023, as the product and application devices became available, and as of September 30, 2023, had treated over 35% of our trees. The extent of any benefit of the OTC application will not be measurable until the completion of the harvest for the year ended September 30, 2024.
Sales of Land

During the year ended September 30, 2023, we sold approximately 2,255 acres to third parties for approximately $12,000 thousand and recognized a gain of $11,432 thousand.
Federal Relief Program – Hurricane Irma
We were eligible for Hurricane Irma federal relief programs for block grants that were being administered through the State of Florida. We have received a total of $26,963 thousand in Hurricane Irma federal relief through the year ended September 30, 2023. As of September 30, 2023, we have received all funds due under the Florida Citrus Recovery Block Grant (“CRBG”) program. These federal relief proceeds are included as a reduction to operating expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. During the years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021 we received Hurricane Irma federal relief proceeds of $1,315 thousand, $1,123 thousand and $4,299 thousand, respectively.
The Land We Manage
We regularly review our land-holdings to determine the best use of each parcel based upon our management expertise. Our total return profile is a combination of operating income potential and long-term appreciation. Land holdings not meeting our total return criteria are considered surplus to our operations and efforts are being made to sell such land holdings or to exchange such land holdings for land considered to be more compatible with our business objectives and total return profile, or to lease such land holdings.
Our land holdings and the operating activities in which we engage are categorized in the following table:
Gross AcreageOperating Activities
Alico Citrus
Citrus Groves48,927Citrus Cultivation
Citrus Nursery22Citrus Tree Development
48,949
Land Management and Other Operations
Ranch22,328Leasing and Conservation
Other Land526Mining Lease and Office
22,854
Total71,803
Alico Citrus
We own and manage citrus land in DeSoto, Polk, Collier, Hendry, Charlotte, Highlands, and Hardee Counties in the state of Florida and engage in the cultivation of citrus trees to produce citrus for delivery to the fresh and processed citrus markets. Alico citrus groves total 48,949 gross acres or 68.2% of our land holdings.
Citrus Land Lease

On June 29, 2022, we signed three agreements to lease approximately 2,100 citrus acres from the grove owners and thus had the rights to citrus production on such leased acreage for a one-year term at a cost of $157 thousand. On June 26, 2023, we extended the lease representing approximately 1,115 acres for one-year through June 30, 2024. Additionally, on the same terms and conditions, we have the right to extend this lease representing 1,115 acres for two one-year periods. This lease expands our current citrus production acreage by approximately 3%, over our owned land production, to approximately 36,000 net citrus acres.

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Our citrus acreage is further detailed in the following table:

Net Plantable
ProducingDevelopingFallowTotal Net
Plantable
Support
& Other
Gross
DeSoto County17,56917,5694,04321,612
Polk County4,9074,9072,1477,054
Collier County3,8693,8693,1877,056
Hendry County5,7583116,0692,8318,900
Charlotte County9761361,1121,4092,521
Highlands County1,0491,0491751,224
Hardee County410410172582
Total34,53844734,98513,96448,949
Of the 48,949 gross acres of citrus land we own and manage, 13,964 acres are classified as support and other acreage. Support and other acreage include acres used for roads, barns, water detention, water retention and drainage ditches integral to the cultivation of citrus trees, but which are not capable of directly producing fruit. In addition, we own a small citrus tree nursery consisting of approximately 22 acres and utilize the trees produced in this nursery in our own operations. The 34,985 remaining acres are classified as net plantable acres. Net plantable acres are those that are capable of directly producing fruit. These include acres that are currently producing, acres that are developing (i.e., acres that are planted with trees too young to commercially produce fruit) and acres that are fallow.
In an effort to increase the density of our citrus groves, we have planted approximately 2,200,000 new trees since 2017. This level of planting has been substantially higher than the normal level of tree attrition. We will continue to evaluate the density throughout our groves and determine the appropriate tree plantings moving forward. Typically, citrus trees become fruit-bearing four to five years after planting and peak around seven to eight years after planting.

Our Alico Citrus business segment cultivates citrus trees to produce citrus for delivery to the processed and fresh citrus markets. Our sales to the processed market were 94.0%, 84.5%, and 82.7% of Alico Citrus revenues for the years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The overall increase in the sales to the processed markets as a percentage of citrus revenues during the year ended September 30, 2023, as compared to the years ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, is due to the termination of an agreement to provide grove management services to third-party grove owners, discussed further below.
The average pound solids per box was 5.02, 5.28, and 5.66 for the years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
We generally use multi-year contracts with citrus processors that include pricing structures based on a floor and ceiling price. Therefore, if pricing in the market is favorable, relative to our floor price, we benefit from the incremental difference between the floor and the final market price to the extent it does not exceed the ceiling price.
Our citrus produced for the processed citrus market during the year ended September 30, 2023, under our largest agreement, was subject to floor prices and ceiling prices. Under this agreement, if the market price was below the floor prices or exceeded the ceiling prices, then 50% of the shortfall or excess was deducted from the floor price or added to the ceiling price. Under our next largest agreement, our citrus produced is subject to a minimum floor price and maximum ceiling price and is based on a cost-plus structure.
In May, 2020, we entered into two agreements to supply Tropicana, our largest customer, with citrus fruit. These new agreements were effective October 1, 2020, expire on July 31, 2024, and succeeded our existing largest agreement with this customer which expired at the end of September 2020. On June 26, 2023 we renewed another agreement to supply Tropicana with citrus fruit, which expired after the fiscal year 2023 harvest season. This new agreement was effective August 31, 2023 and expires on August 31, 2025. Our sales to the fresh citrus market constituted 1.5%, 1.4%, and 0.6% of our Alico Citrus revenues for the years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

In June 2022, a group of third-party grove owners, who are affiliated with each other (collectively, the “Grove Owners”), for which we were managing groves under a Property Management Agreement executed on July 16, 2020 with the Grove Owners, under which we performed grove management services, terminated the management relationship under the Property Management Agreement with us as the Grove Owners decided to exit the citrus business. As a result, all grove management services relating to the Property Management Agreement and the accompanying management fee and reimbursed costs associated with performing grove management services ceased on June 10, 2022. The management fee was paid through June 30, 2022. We continue to provide grove management services to several small third-party grove-
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owners on acres within our groves. Revenues generated from our grove management services were 3.2%, 13.3%, and 16.1% of our total citrus revenues for the years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
On October 30, 2020, we purchased approximately 3,280 gross acres located in Hendry County for a purchase price of $18,230 thousand. This acquisition allowed us to add additional scale to our then approximately 46,000 gross acres of citrus properties. Strategically, with these acquired groves neighboring existing Alico groves, we believe that this acquisition will help us with our operation designed to be a low-cost, high-producing citrus grower.
Revenues from our Alico Citrus operations were 95.7%, 97.5%, and 97.5% of our total operating revenues for the years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Land Management and Other Operations
We own and manage land in Collier, Glades, and Hendry Counties and lease land for recreational and grazing purposes, conservation, and mining activities. Our Land Management and Other Operations land holdings total 22,854 gross acres, or 31.8% of our total acreage.
Our Land Management and Other Operations acreage is detailed in the following table as of September 30, 2023:
Acreage
Hendry County18,722
Collier County3,606
Glades County526
Total22,854
During the year ended September 30, 2023, we sold approximately 2,255 acres for $12,000 thousand and recognized a gain of $11,432 thousand (including approximately 85 acres for $439 thousand to Mr. John E. Kiernan, our President and CEO).
During the year ended September 30, 2022, we sold approximately 9,414 acres for $41,421 thousand and recognized a gain of $39,124 thousand.
During the year ended September 30, 2021, we sold approximately 17,434 acres for $26,664 thousand and recognized a gain of $25,272 thousand (including approximately 7,372 acres for $20,120 thousand to the State of Florida, under the Florida Forever program, for a gain of $5,570 thousand). See Note 4. Assets Held for Sale to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report for further information on ranch land sales.
Revenues from Land Management and Other Operations were 4.3%, 2.5%, and 2.5% of total operating revenues for the years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Our Strategy
Our core business strategy is to maximize stockholder value through continuously improving the return on our invested capital, either by holding and managing our existing land through skilled agricultural production, leasing, or other opportunistic means of monetization, disposing of under productive land or business units and acquiring new land or operations with appreciation potential.
Our objectives are to produce the highest quality agricultural products, create innovative land uses, opportunistically acquire and convert undervalued assets, sell under-productive land and other assets not meeting our total return profile, generate recurring and sustainable profit with the appropriate balance of risk and reward, and exceed the expectations of stockholder, customers, clients and partners.
Our strategy is based on what we believe are best-management practices of our agricultural operations and the environmental and conservation stewardship of our land and natural resources. We try to manage our land in a sustainable manner to maximize value creation and to evaluate the effect of changing land uses while considering new opportunities. We believe that our commitment to environmental stewardship is fundamental to our core beliefs.
Intellectual Property
While we consider our various intellectual property to be valued assets, we do not believe that our competitive position or our operations are dependent upon or would be materially impacted by any single piece of intellectual property or group of related intellectual property registrations or rights.
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Seasonal Nature of Business
As with any agribusiness enterprise, our agribusiness operations and revenues are predominantly seasonal in nature. The following table illustrates the seasonality of our agribusiness revenues:
Year Ended September 30
Q1Q2Q3Q4
Ending 12/31Ending 3/31Ending 6/30Ending 9/30
OctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSept
Harvest Fresh and Early/Mid Varieties of OrangesXXXX
Harvest Valencia OrangesXXXX
Significant Customer
Revenue from Tropicana represented 81.3%, 79.7%, and 77.5% of our consolidated revenue for the years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Revenue in the years ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, from Tropicana, was generated primarily from two separate contracts. This revenue was generated from the sale of our citrus product in the processed market. No other single customer provided more than 10% of our consolidated revenue in the years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 or 2021.

The slight increase in Tropicana revenue, as a percentage of sales, for the years ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 is primarily due to the Grove Owners terminating the Property Management Agreement in June 2022.
Competition
The orange and specialty citrus markets are intensely competitive, but no single producer has any significant market power over any market segments, as is consistent with the production of most agricultural commodities. Citrus is grown domestically in several states including Florida, California, Arizona, and Texas, as well as foreign countries, most notably Brazil and Mexico. Competition is impacted by several factors including quality, production, demand, brand recognition, market prices, weather, disease, export/import restrictions and foreign currency exchange rates.
Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”)

We are an agricultural company which, based upon its rich heritage and traditions, seeks to maximize value for its customers and stockholders in the long term, which we believe includes employing sustainable practices in all aspects of operations including stewardship of both its natural and human resources. We recognize the increased emphasis by stockholders, business partners and other key constituents in recent years on ESG programs that are embedded into day-to-day business policies and practices. We are proud of our focus on the impacts of our business on our communities, the environment, and employees.

Governmental Regulations
Our operations are subject to various federal, state and local laws regulating the discharge of materials into the environment. Management believes we are in material compliance with all such rules including permitting and reporting requirements. Historically, compliance with environmental regulations has not had a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Management monitors environmental legislation and requirements and makes every reasonable effort to remain in compliance with such regulations. In addition, we require in our leases that lessees of our property comply with environmental regulations as a condition of leasing.
We are subject to other laws of the United States and the rules and regulations of various governing bodies within the United States, which may differ among jurisdictions. Compliance with these laws, rules and regulations has not had, and is not expected to have, a material effect on our capital expenditures, results of operations and competitive position as compared to prior periods.
Human Capital Management
Purpose and Company Values
Supporting our people is a fundamental value for Alico. We believe our success depends on our ability to attract, develop and retain key personnel. The skills, experience and industry knowledge of our employees and the employees of our
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independent contractors significantly benefit our operations and performance. Our management oversees various employee initiatives and also monitors the effectiveness of the personnel provided by independent contractors with which we contract for certain harvesting and hauling services.
Employees
We believe in a culture of equity, diversity and inclusion. We are also committed to advancing safe and respectful work environments where our employees are invited to bring their talents, backgrounds and expertise to bear on the success of our business and where every person has the opportunity to thrive personally and professionally.
Hiring, Development and Retention
Employee levels are managed to align with the pace of business and consider the services that are provided for us by our independent contractors. We rely on our independent contractors to manage their respective employee levels so that the harvesting and hauling services they are obligated to perform for us are consistent with the contractual obligations of these independent contractors and enable us to satisfy our harvesting and hauling needs. Management believes that through our own employees, coupled with the human capital supplied by our independent contractors, we have sufficient human capital to operate our business successfully. Management believes that our employee relations are favorable, that our relations with our independent contractors is favorable, and that the relations that the independent contractors and we have with the employees of the independent contractors is favorable.
Employee Safety and Well-Being
Protecting the health and safety in the workplace for our employees and personnel provided by independent contractors with which we contract is one of our core values. Hazards in the workplace are actively identified and management tracks incidents so remedial actions can be taken to improve workplace safety. In order to support and enhance health and safety practices, we routinely conduct safety training with employees to emphasize safety when conducting grove caretaking, general employee health, proper equipment operating techniques, office ergonomics and other important safety topics. The COVID-19 pandemic underscored for us the importance of keeping our employees and the personnel provided by independent contractors safe and healthy. In response to the pandemic, we have taken actions aligned with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to protect our workforce so that our workforce can more safely and effectively perform their work.
Inclusion and Diversity
People are critical to our efforts to drive growth and deliver value for stockholders. One of the ways we have put people at the center is by continuing to work toward a more inclusive and diverse workplace where each person feels respected, valued and seen and can be the best version of themselves – from women and ethnically diverse employees to veterans, among others. With employees, management and directors from diverse backgrounds, we can access stronger insights into different cultures and backgrounds, which ultimately helps us to better operate the business.
Based on our Inclusion and Diversity strategy, we seek to promote a greater sense of inclusion through a variety of initiatives, which includes a Company-wide women’s group to promote mentoring, career advancement, training, comradery, and empowerment.
Compensation and Benefits
Our compensation and benefits are designed to support the financial, mental, and physical well-being of our employees. We are committed to equal pay for equal work, regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, or other personal characteristics. We believe our base wages and salaries, which we review annually, are fair and competitive with the external labor markets in which our employees work. We also regularly review our compensation practices to promote fair and equitable pay. We also offer competitive benefit programs, in line with local practices and with the flexibility to accommodate the needs of a diverse workforce. The benefit programs include, among others, paid holidays, family leave, disability insurance, life insurance, healthcare, and a 401(k) plan with a company match. As of September 30, 2023, we had 194 full-time employees and no part-time employees. We do not include our independent contractors in our number of employees because they are not employees.


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Our employees work in the following divisions:
Alico Citrus168
Land Management and Other Operations (1)
0
Corporate, General, Administrative and Other26
Total employees194
(1)There is one employee who is included in Corporate, General, Administrative and Other who oversees the Land Management and Other Operations.
None of our employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement. We believe that our relations with our employees are good.

Workforce Housing
We own and maintain 38 residential housing units located in various counties in Florida that we offer to employees. Our residential units provide affordable housing to many of our employees, including our agribusiness employees. Employees live close to their work, which reduces traffic and commuting times. This unique employment benefit helps us maintain a dependable, long-term employee base.
Raw Materials
Raw materials needed to cultivate the various crops grown by us consist primarily of fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides and fuel and are readily available from local suppliers. These raw materials are purchased on an order basis without long-term commitments. Our key suppliers for fertilizer, herbicides and insecticides include Howard Fertilizer, Wedgeworth’s, Nutrien AG Solutions and Helena Agri-Enterprises.
Societal Well-Being
We remain committed to a healthy and equitable society to ensure our collective well-being for future generations. In the past year, we provided cash grants and supporting donations to support our communities and promote health, safety and education.
Available Information
Our reports filed with or furnished to the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Exchange Act, are available, free of charge, on our investor relations website at ir.alicoinc.com as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file or furnish such information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Any information posted on, or that can be accessed through our website, is not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report. The SEC also maintains a website at http://www.sec.gov, which contains annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Our business and results of operations are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. The following is a description of key known factors that we believe may materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. They should be considered carefully, together with the information set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report, and with our other filings with the SEC. The realization of any of these risks and uncertainties could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition, results of operations, growth and future prospects, as well as our ability to accomplish our strategic objectives.
Risks Related to our Business

Adverse weather conditions, natural disasters and other natural conditions, including the effects of climate change and hurricanes and tropical storms, particularly because our citrus groves are geographically concentrated in Florida, could impose significant costs and losses on our business and adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Fresh produce is vulnerable to adverse weather conditions, including windstorms, floods, drought and temperature extremes, which are quite common and may occur with higher frequency or be less predictable in the future due to the effects of climate change. Unfavorable growing conditions can reduce both crop size and crop quality. In extreme cases, entire harvests may be lost in some geographic areas. Citrus groves are subject to damage from frost and freezes, and this has happened periodically in the recent past, including the freeze in the last week of January 2022. In some cases, the fruit is damaged or ruined; in the case of extended periods of cold, the trees can also be damaged or killed. These factors can
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increase costs, decrease revenues and lead to additional charges to earnings, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Our citrus operations are concentrated in central and south Florida, with our groves located in parcels in DeSoto, Polk, Collier, Hendry, Charlotte, Highlands, and Hardee Counties. Because our groves are located in close proximity to each other, the impact of adverse weather conditions may be material to our results of operations, financial position and cash flows. Florida is particularly susceptible to the occurrence of hurricanes and tropical storms. Depending on where any particular hurricane or tropical storm makes landfall, our properties could experience significant, if not catastrophic damage. Hurricanes and tropical storms have the potential to destroy crops and impact citrus production through the loss of fruit and destruction of trees and/or plants either as a result of high winds or through the spread of windblown disease. Such damage could materially affect our citrus operations and could result in a loss of operating revenues from those products for a multi-year period. For instance, recent Hurricane Ian had a material adverse effect on the fruit production from our trees for the 2023 harvest season and, potentially to a lesser extent, the next season and future seasons. We seek to minimize hurricane risk by the purchase of insurance contracts, but a significant portion of our crops remain uninsured. In addition to hurricanes and tropical storms, the occurrence of other natural disasters and climate conditions in Florida, such as tornadoes, floods, freezes (such as the freeze in the last week of January 2022), unusually heavy or prolonged rain, droughts and heat waves, could have a material adverse effect on our operations and our ability to realize income from our crops or properties.
Our citrus groves are subject to damage and loss from disease including, but not limited to, citrus greening and citrus canker, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our citrus groves are subject to damage and loss from diseases such as citrus greening and citrus canker. Each of these diseases is widespread in Florida and exists in our citrus groves and in the areas where our citrus groves are located. The success of our citrus business is directly related to the viability and health of our citrus groves.
Citrus greening is one of the most serious citrus plant diseases in the world. Once a tree is infected, its productivity generally decreases. While the disease poses no threat to humans or animals, it has devastated citrus crops throughout the United States and abroad. Named for its green, misshapen fruit, citrus greening disease has now killed millions of citrus plants in the southeastern United States and has spread across the entire country. Infected trees produce fruits that are green, misshapen and bitter, unsuitable for sale as fresh fruit or for juice. Infected trees can die within a few years. At the present time, there is no known cure for citrus greening once trees have become infected. Primarily, as a result of citrus greening, orange production in the state of Florida has continued to drop.
Citrus canker is a disease affecting citrus species and is caused by a bacterium which is spread by contact with infected trees or by windblown transmission. There is no known cure for citrus canker at present, although some management practices, including the use of copper-based bactericides, can mitigate its spread and lessen its effect on infected trees; however, there is no assurance that currently available technologies will control such disease effectively.
Both of these diseases pose a significant threat to the Florida citrus industry and to our citrus groves. While we try to use best management practices to attempt to control diseases and their spread, there can be no assurance that our mitigation efforts will be successful. These diseases can significantly increase our costs, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Our citrus groves produce the significant majority of our annual operating revenues. A significant reduction in available citrus from our citrus groves could decrease our operating revenues and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
A significant portion of our revenues are derived from our citrus business and any adverse event affecting such business could disproportionately harm our business.
Our revenues from our citrus business were 95.7%, 97.5%, and 97.5% of our operating revenues in the years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Our citrus division is one of the largest citrus producers in the United States, and because of the significance of the revenues derived from this business, we are vulnerable to adverse events or market conditions affecting our citrus business, in particular, or the citrus business, generally, which could have a significant adversely impact on our overall results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our failure to effectively perform grove management services, or to effectively manage an expanded portfolio of groves, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
If we are unable to effectively perform grove management services for both our own groves and the groves owned by third parties at the level and/or the cost that we expect, or if we were to fail to allocate sufficient resources to meet the grove management of our own groves and the groves owned by these third parties, it could adversely affect our performance and reputation. Our ability to perform the grove management services has in the past and will continue to be affected by various factors, including, among other things, our ability to maintain sufficient personnel and retain key personnel, the ability of the independent contractors whom we engage to assist in providing these services to maintain sufficient personnel and retain key personnel, and the number of acres and groves that we will manage. No assurance can be made that we will continue to be successful in attracting and retaining skilled personnel or in integrating any new personnel into our organization or that the independent contractors whom we engage to assist in providing these services will continue to be
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successful in attracting and retaining skilled personnel or in integrating any new personnel into their respective organizations.
Our business is highly competitive, and we cannot assure you that we will maintain our current market share.
Many companies compete in our different businesses and offer products that are similar to our products or are direct competitors to our products. We face strong competition from these and other companies engaged in the agricultural product business.
Important factors with respect to our competitors include the following:
Some of our competitors may have greater operating flexibility and, in certain cases, this may permit them to respond better or more quickly to changes in the industry.
We cannot predict the pricing or promotional actions of our competitors or whether those actions will have a negative effect on us.
Our competitors may have access to substantially greater financial resources, deeper management and agricultural resources, regional, national or global areas that offer agricultural advantages, and enhanced public visibility or reputations.
There can be no assurance that we will continue to compete effectively with our present and future competitors, and our ability to compete could be materially adversely affected by our debt levels and debt service requirements.
We depend on our relationship with Tropicana and Tropicana’s relationship with certain third parties for a significant portion of our business. Any disruption in these relationships could harm our revenue. Additionally, if certain criteria are not met under one of our contracts with Tropicana, we could experience a significant reduction in revenues and cash flows.
Our contracts with Tropicana accounted for 81.3%, 79.7%, and 77.5% of our revenues in the years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The revenue for Tropicana is primarily generated from two contracts. Should there be any change in our current relationship structure, whereby they do not buy our oranges, we would need to find replacement buyers to purchase our remaining crop, which could take time and expense and may result in less favorable terms of sale. The loss of Tropicana as a customer or significant reduction in business with Tropicana may cause a material adverse impact to our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
In addition, with the sale of a majority ownership of Tropicana by PepsiCo to a French private equity firm (the “Firm”), there is some heightened risk and uncertainty in our current relationship with Tropicana, which potentially could result in a significant reduction in revenues and cash flows if that relationship were to be changed. We currently have citrus supply contracts with Tropicana that expire in both 2024 and 2025, with the majority expiring in 2024. If Tropicana were to reduce the volume of oranges purchased from us and/or purchased from owners of groves that we manage, we would need to find, and/or the owners of groves that we manage would need to find or work with us to find, replacement buyers to purchase any remaining crop of our and/or of the owners of the groves we manage, which could take time and expense and may result in less favorable terms of sale. The loss of Tropicana as a customer or significant reduction in business with Tropicana for us and/or for the owners of the groves we manage may cause a material adverse impact to our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Our agricultural products are subject to supply and demand pricing which is not predictable.
Agricultural operations traditionally provide almost all of our operating revenues, with citrus being the largest portion and subject to supply and demand pricing. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, according to Nielsen data, consumer demand for orange juice had decreased significantly to its lowest level in almost a decade; however, we have been able to offset the impact of such decline with higher prices based on a lower supply of available oranges. In addition, there is currently a shortage of orange juice worldwide that is forecasted to continue for the foreseeable future. Although the demand for orange juice has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is uncertain as to whether such increased demand can be maintained, whether we will see a return to a decline in the future and whether, if there were to be such a decline, the impact could be again offset by higher prices. Although our processed citrus is subject to minimum pricing, we are unable to predict with certainty the final price we will receive for our products. In some instances, the harvest and growth cycle will dictate when such products must be marketed which may or may not be advantageous in obtaining the best price. Excessive supplies tend to cause severe price competition and lower prices for the commodity affected. Limited supply of certain agricultural commodities due to world and domestic market conditions can cause commodity prices to rise in certain situations.
If we are unable to successfully develop and execute our strategic growth initiatives, or if they do not adequately address the challenges or opportunities we face, our business, financial condition and prospects may be adversely affected.
Our success is dependent, in part, on our ability to identify, develop and execute appropriate strategic growth initiatives that will enable us to achieve sustainable growth in the long term. The implementation of our strategic initiatives is subject to both the risks affecting our business generally and the inherent risks associated with implementing new strategies. These
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strategic initiatives may not be successful in generating revenues or improving operating profit and, if they are, it may take longer than anticipated. As a result, and depending on evolving conditions and opportunities, we may need to adjust our strategic initiatives and such changes could be substantial, including modifying or terminating one or more of such initiatives. Termination of such initiatives may require us to write down or write off the value of our investments in them. Transition and changes in our strategic initiatives may also create uncertainty in our employees, customers and partners that could adversely affect our business and revenues. In addition, we may incur higher than expected or unanticipated costs in implementing our strategic initiatives, attempting to attract revenue opportunities or changing our strategies. There can be no assurance that the implementation of any strategic growth initiative will be successful, and we may not realize anticipated benefits at levels we project or at all, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and prospects.
We are subject to the risk of product contamination and product liability claims.
The sale of agricultural products for human consumption involves the risk of injury to consumers. Such injuries may result from tampering by unauthorized third parties, product contamination or spoilage, including the presence of foreign objects, substances, chemicals, other agents, or residues introduced during the growing, storage, handling or transportation phases. We are subject to governmental inspection and regulations and we cannot be sure that our agricultural products will not cause a health-related illness in the future or that we will not be subject to claims or lawsuits relating to such matters. Even if a product liability claim is unsuccessful or is not fully pursued, the negative publicity surrounding any assertion that our products caused illness or injury could adversely affect our reputation with existing and potential customers and our corporate and brand image. Moreover, claims or liabilities of this sort might not be covered or fully covered by our insurance or by any rights of indemnity or contribution that we may have against others. We cannot be sure that we will not incur claims or liabilities for which we are not insured or that exceed the amount of our product liability insurance coverage.
Our agricultural operations are subject to water use regulations restricting our access to water.
Our operations are dependent upon the availability of adequate surface and underground water. The availability of water is regulated by the state of Florida through water management districts which have jurisdiction over various geographic regions in which our lands are located. Currently, we have permits in place for the next 15 to 20 years for the use of underground and surface water which are believed to be adequate for our agricultural needs.
Surface water in Hendry County, where much of our agricultural land is located, comes from Lake Okeechobee via the Caloosahatchee River and a system of canals used to irrigate such land. The Army Corps of Engineers controls the level of Lake Okeechobee and ultimately determines the availability of surface water, even though the use of water has been permitted by the State of Florida through the water management district. The Army Corps of Engineers decided in 2010 to lower the permissible level of Lake Okeechobee in response to concerns about the ability of the levee surrounding the lake to restrain rising waters which could result from hurricanes. Changes in availability of surface water use may result during times of drought, because of lower lake levels and could materially adversely affect our agricultural operations, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Changes in immigration laws could impact our ability to harvest our crops.
We engage third parties to provide personnel for our harvesting operations. The availability and number of such workers is subject to decrease if there are changes in the U.S. immigration laws. Immigration reform and enforcement has been attracting significant attention from the U.S. Government, with enforcement operations taking place across the country, resulting in arrests and detentions of unauthorized workers. It remains unclear how the U.S. administration and U.S. Congress will approach immigration reform and enforcement. If new immigration legislation is enacted in the U.S. and/or if enforcement actions are taken against available personnel, such legislation and/or enforcement activities may contain provisions that could significantly reduce the number and availability of workers. Termination of a significant number of personnel who might be found to be unauthorized workers, or the scarcity of other available personnel to harvest our agricultural products, could cause harvesting costs to increase, or could lead to the loss of product that is not timely harvested, which could have a material adverse effect to our citrus grove business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Harm to our reputation could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Maintaining a strong reputation with fruit processors and third-party partners is critical to the success of our business. We devote significant time and resources to training programs, relating to, among other things, ethics, compliance and product safety and quality, as well as sustainability goals, and have published ESG goals (i.e., environmental, social and governance), including relating to environmental impact and sustainability and inclusion and diversity, as part of our ESG strategy. Despite these efforts, we may not be successful in achieving our goals, might provide materially inaccurate information, or might receive negative publicity about the Company, including relating to product safety, quality, efficacy, ESG or similar issues, whether real or perceived, and reputational damage could occur. In addition, our products could face withdrawal, recall or other quality issues, which could lead to decreased demand for our products or services and reputational damage.
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Widespread use of social media and networking sites by consumers has greatly increased the accessibility and speed of dissemination of information. Negative publicity, posts or comments about the Company, whether accurate or inaccurate, or disclosure of non-public sensitive information about the Company, could be widely disseminated through the use of social media or in other formats.
If a transaction intended to qualify as a Section 1031 Exchange is later determined to be taxable, we may face adverse consequences, and if the laws applicable to such transactions are amended or repealed, we may not be able to dispose of properties in the future on a tax deferred basis.
From time to time we dispose of properties in transactions that are intended to qualify as Section 1031 Exchanges under the federal income tax law. It is possible that the qualification of a transaction as a Section 1031 Exchange could be successfully challenged and determined to be currently taxable and we could also be required to pay interest and penalties. As a result, we may be required to borrow funds in order to pay additional income taxes, and the payment of such taxes could cause us to have less cash available. Moreover, it is possible that legislation could be enacted that could modify or repeal the laws with respect to Section 1031 Exchanges, which could make it more difficult, or not possible, for us to dispose of properties in the future on a tax deferred basis.
We may undertake one or more significant corporate transactions that may not achieve their intended results, may adversely affect our financial condition and our results of operations, or result in unforeseeable risks to our business.
We continuously evaluate the acquisition or disposition of operating businesses and assets and may in the future undertake one or more significant transactions. Any such acquisitive transaction could be material to our business and could take any number of forms, including mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures and the purchase of equity interests. The consideration for such acquisitive transactions may include, among other things, cash, common stock or equity interests in the Company or our subsidiaries, or a contribution of property or equipment to obtain equity interests, and in conjunction with a transaction we might incur additional indebtedness. We also routinely evaluate the benefits of disposing of certain assets. Such dispositions could take the form of asset sales, mergers or sales of equity interests.
These transactions may present significant risks such as insufficient assets to offset liabilities assumed, potential loss of significant operating revenues and income streams, increased or unexpected expenses, inadequate return of capital, regulatory or compliance issues, the triggering of certain financial covenants in our debt instruments (including accelerated repayment) and unidentified issues not discovered in due diligence. In addition, such transactions could distract management from current operations. As a result of the risks inherent in such transactions, we cannot guarantee that any such transaction will ultimately result in the realization of its anticipated benefits or that it will not have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. If we were to complete such an acquisition, disposition, investment or other strategic transaction, we may require additional debt or equity financing that could result in a significant increase in our amount of debt and our debt service obligations or the number of outstanding shares of our common stock, thereby diluting holders of our common stock outstanding prior to such acquisition.
We seek to opportunistically acquire new agricultural assets from time to time that we believe would complement our business. For example, (i) in the year ended September 30, 2015, we acquired three Florida citrus properties, including Orange-Co and Silver Nip Citrus, which resulted in our citrus division being one of the largest citrus producers in the United States; and (ii) in October 2020 we acquired another Florida citrus property. We may fail to realize all of the anticipated benefits of these acquisitions, which could reduce our anticipated results. We cannot assure that we will be able to successfully identify suitable acquisition opportunities, negotiate appropriate acquisition terms, or obtain any financing that may be needed to consummate such acquisitions or complete proposed acquisitions. Acquisitions by us could result in accounting changes, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, increased debt and contingent liabilities, reduce the amount of cash available for dividends, debt service payments, integration issues and diversion of management’s attention, any of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows. We may be unable to successfully realize the financial, operational, and other benefits we anticipate from our acquisitions and our failure to do so could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We also routinely evaluate the benefits of disposing of certain of our assets, which could include the exit from lines of business. For example, in November of 2014, we sold significant sugarcane assets and we are no longer involved in the sugarcane business and, in January of 2018, we sold our breeding herd and no longer engage in cattle operations. Most recently, we sold certain ranch acres to the State of Florida, and because these acres would have been critically important for carrying out our planned dispersed water storage project, we are no longer pursuing permit approval relating to this dispersed water storage project. Such dispositions could (i) result in a potential loss of significant operating revenues and income streams that we might not be able to replace, (ii) make our business less diversified, and (iii) ultimately have a negative impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our citrus business is seasonal.
Our citrus groves produce the majority of our annual operating revenues and the citrus business is seasonal because it is tied to the growing and picking seasons. Historically, the second and third quarters of our year generally produce the majority of our annual revenues, and our working capital requirements are typically greater in the first and fourth quarters of our year, coinciding with our planting cycles. Because of the seasonality of our business, results for any quarter are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be achieved for the full year or in future quarters. If our operating revenues in
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the second and third quarters are lower than expected, it would have a disproportionately large adverse impact on our annual operating results.
We face significant competition in our agricultural operations.
We face significant competition in our agricultural operations both from domestic and foreign producers and do not have any branded products. Foreign growers generally have an equal or lower cost of production, less environmental regulation, and, in some instances, greater resources and market flexibility than us. Because foreign growers have greater flexibility as to when they enter the U.S. market, we cannot always predict the impact these competitors will have on our business and results of operations. The competition we face from certain foreign suppliers of orange juice is mitigated by a governmentally-imposed tariff on orange imports. Accordingly, a reduction in the government’s orange juice tariff could adversely impact our results of operations.
Our earnings are sensitive to fluctuations in market supply and prices and demand for our products.
Excess supplies often cause severe price competition in our industry. Growing conditions in various parts of the world, particularly weather conditions such as windstorms, floods, droughts and freezes, as well as diseases and pests, are primary factors affecting market prices because of their influence on the supply and quality of product.
Fresh produce is highly perishable and generally must be brought to market and sold soon after harvest. Many of the items involved in our business, such as oranges, must be sold more quickly than other produce our competitors may produce, such as lemons. As such, our competitors may be able to maintain certain items they produce in inventory for longer periods than we are able to maintain our inventory, which may offer our competitors strategic advantages when they respond to fluctuations in market supply and demand that are not available to us.
In addition, general public perceptions regarding the quality, safety or health risks associated with particular food products could reduce demand and prices for some of our products. To the extent that consumer preferences evolve away from products that we produce for health or other reasons, and we are unable to modify our products or to develop products that satisfy new consumer preferences, there will be a decreased demand for our products. If excess supplies do exist, this could result in reduced pricing or unusable inventory which could adversely impact our results of operations.
Climate change, or legal, regulatory, or market measures to address climate change, may negatively affect our business and operations.
There is growing concern that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere may have an adverse impact on global temperatures, weather patterns, and the frequency and severity of extreme weather and natural disasters. In the event that such climate change has a negative effect on the productivity of our citrus groves, it could have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations. The increasing concern over climate change also may result in more regional, federal, and/or global legal and regulatory requirements to reduce or mitigate the effects of greenhouse gases or climate change. In the event that such regulation is enacted, we may experience significant increases in our costs of operations, including, but not limited to, increased energy, environmental, and other costs and capital expenditures. In particular, increasing regulation of fuel emissions could substantially increase the distribution and supply chain costs associated with our products. As a result, climate change could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the SEC’s proposed climate-related disclosure rules, if adopted, would require new climate-related disclosures in SEC filings, including certain climate-related metrics and greenhouse gas emissions data, information about climate-related targets and goals, transition plans, if any, and attestation requirements. If adopted, these rules would impose increased compliance costs and could lead to increased litigation risks related to disclosures made pursuant to the rules, either of which could materially and adversely affect our financial performance.
ESG issues, including those related to climate change and sustainability, may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows and damage our reputation.
Companies across all industries are facing increasing and evolving scrutiny relating to their ESG policies, initiatives and disclosures from governments, regulators, investors, consumers, employees and other stakeholders. Increased and varied focus and activism related to ESG may hinder our access to capital, as investors may reconsider their capital investment as a result of their assessment of our ESG practices, or due to our focus on ESG practices at all. In particular, certain customers, investors and other stakeholders are increasingly focusing on environmental issues, including climate change, water use, deforestation, plastic waste, and other sustainability concerns. There have also been changing consumer preferences for natural or organic products and ingredients and increased consumer concerns or perceptions (whether accurate or inaccurate) regarding the effects of substances present in certain consumer products. Responding to and complying with these preferences, concerns and demands could cause us to incur additional costs or to make changes to our operations that could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, the increased emphasis on ESG matters has resulted in, and may continue to result in, the adoption of laws and regulations, including reporting requirements, which increased regulation will likely lead to increased compliance costs, as well as increased scrutiny regarding our ESG activities and disclosures, which may lead to increased litigation risks. Moreover, while we may create and publish voluntary disclosures regarding ESG matters from time to time, many of the statements in those voluntary disclosures are based on hypothetical expectations and assumptions that may or may not be
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representative of current or actual risks or events or forecasts of expected risks or events, including the costs associated therewith. Such expectations and assumptions are necessarily uncertain and may be prone to error or subject to misinterpretation given the long timelines involved and the lack of an established single approach to identifying, measuring and reporting on many ESG matters. Such disclosures may also be at least partially reliant on third-party information that we have not independently verified or cannot be independently verified. If we do not adapt to or comply with new regulations or fail to meet our ESG goals, or meet the evolving investor, industry or stakeholder expectations and standards, or if we are perceived to have not responded appropriately to the growing concern for ESG issues, fruit processors and consumers may choose to stop purchasing our products or purchase products from another company or a competitor, and our reputation, business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be adversely affected.
Increases in labor, personnel and benefits costs could adversely affect our operating results.
We primarily utilize labor contractors to harvest and deliver our fruit to outside packing facilities. Our employees and contractors are in demand by other agribusinesses and other industries. Shortages of labor, particularly as a result of the recent low unemployment rate in the United States, and in Florida in particular, could delay our harvesting or orange processing activities or could result in increases in labor costs.
We and our labor contractors are subject to government mandated wage and benefit laws and regulations. In addition, current or future federal or state healthcare legislation and regulation, including the Affordable Care Act, may increase our medical costs or the medical costs of our labor contractors that could be passed on to us.
Increases in commodity or raw product costs, such as fuel and chemical costs, could adversely affect our operating results.
Many factors may affect the cost and supply of citrus, including external conditions, commodity market fluctuations, changes in governmental laws and regulations, tariffs, agricultural programs, severe and prolonged weather conditions and natural disasters. Increased costs for products, as we have experienced in this last year, can negatively impact our operating results and there can be no assurance that they will not adversely affect our operating results in the future.
We are subject to transportation risks.
We depend on third party providers of transportation and have no control over such third parties. An extended interruption in our ability to harvest and haul our products could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Similarly, any extended disruption in the distribution of our products could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we were to experience an interruption due to strike, natural disasters or otherwise, we cannot be sure that our insurance would adequately cover all claims and that any efforts to transport our products by alternative means would be successful and done in a timely and cost-effective manner.
We benefit from reduced real estate taxes due to the agricultural classification of a majority of our land. Changes in the classification or valuation methods employed by county property appraisers could cause significant changes in our real estate property tax liabilities.
For the years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, we paid $2,786 thousand, $2,679 thousand, and $2,570 thousand in real estate taxes, respectively. These taxes were based upon the agricultural use (“Green Belt”) values determined by the county property appraisers in which counties we own land, of $90,481 thousand, $85,159 thousand, and $82,790 thousand for the years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively, which differs significantly from the fair values determined by the county property appraisers of $419,915 thousand, $391,049 thousand, and $467,948 thousand, respectively. Changes in state law or county policy regarding the granting of agricultural classification or calculation of “Green Belt” values or average millage rates could significantly and adversely impact our results of operations, cash flows and/or financial position.
Liability for the use of fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and other potentially hazardous substances could increase our costs.
Our agricultural business involves the use of herbicides, fertilizers and pesticides, some of which may be considered hazardous or toxic substances. We may be deemed liable and have to pay for the costs or damages associated with the improper application, accidental release or the use or misuse of such substances. Our insurance may not be adequate to cover such costs or damages, or may not continue to be available at a price or under terms that are satisfactory to us. In such cases, if we are required to pay significant costs or damages, it could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Compliance with applicable environmental laws may substantially increase our costs of doing business, which could reduce our profits.
We are subject to various laws and regulations relating to the operation of our properties, which are administered by numerous federal, state and local governmental agencies. We face a potential for environmental liability by virtue of our
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ownership of real estate property. If hazardous substances (including herbicides and pesticides used by us or by any persons leasing our lands) are discovered emanating from any of our lands and the release of such substances presents a threat of harm to the public health or the environment, we may be held strictly liable for the cost of remediation of these hazardous substances. In addition, environmental laws that apply to a given site can vary greatly according to the site’s location, its present and former uses, and other factors such as the presence of wetlands or endangered species on the site. Management monitors environmental legislation and requirements and work to remain in compliance with such regulations. Furthermore, we require lessees of our properties to comply with environmental regulations as a condition of leasing. We also purchase insurance for environmental liability when it is available; however, these insurance contracts may not be adequate to cover such costs or damages or may not continue to be available at prices and terms that would be satisfactory. It is possible that in some cases the cost of compliance with these environmental laws could exceed the value of a particular tract of land, make it unsuitable for use in what would otherwise be its highest and best use, and/or be significant enough that it would materially adversely affect us.
Our business may be adversely affected if we lose key employees.
We depend to a large extent on the services of certain key management personnel. These individuals have extensive experience and expertise in the business lines and segments in which they work. The loss of any of these individuals could have a material adverse effect on our businesses. We do not maintain key-man life insurance with respect to any of our employees. Our success will be dependent on our ability to continue to attract, employ and retain skilled personnel in our business lines and segments.
Material weaknesses and other control deficiencies relating to our internal control over financial reporting could result in errors in our reported results and could have a material adverse effect on our operations, investor confidence in our business and the trading price of our securities.
Our internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements because of its inherent limitations, including the possibility of human error, the circumvention or overriding of controls or fraud. Even effective internal controls can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements. Management’s assessment of our internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2022 concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective and that a material weakness existed. This material weakness resulted in the restatements of our consolidated balance sheets, consolidated statements of changes in equity and related disclosures as of September 30, 2021, and as of the end of each quarterly period ended June 30, 2022, March 31, 2022, December 31, 2021, June 30, 2021, March 31, 2021, and December 31, 2020 to correct errors relating to the calculation of deferred tax liabilities and make adjustments to the amounts of previously reported deferred tax liabilities and retained earnings. Although this material weakness was remediated, there can be no assurance that we will not identify additional material weaknesses in the future.
In future periods, if we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, including any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or if we experience difficulties in their implementation, our business and operating results could be harmed, and we could fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which in turn could affect the market price of our securities. In addition, perceptions of us among customers, lenders, investors, securities analysts and others could also be adversely affected. Any weaknesses or deficiencies identified in the future could also hurt confidence in our business and the accuracy and completeness of our financial statements, and adversely affect our ability to do business with these groups. We can give no assurances that our controls and procedures will be adequate to prevent or identify irregularities or ensure the fair and accurate presentation of our financial statements included in our periodic reports filed with the SEC.
Any restatements and resulting investigations, legal or administrative proceedings could result in fines, injunctions, orders, and penalties which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.
As discussed above, a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting resulted in the restatements of our consolidated balance sheets, consolidated statements of changes in equity and related disclosures as of September 30, 2021, and as of the end of each quarterly period ended June 30, 2022, March 31, 2022, December 31, 2021, June 30, 2021, March 31, 2021, and December 31, 2020. This restatement and any future restatements, and any investigations, legal or administrative proceedings that could result therefrom, may divert our management’s time and attention and cause us to incur substantial costs. Such investigations can also lead to fines or injunctions or orders with respect to future activities. At this point, we are unable to predict whether the SEC or any other regulatory agencies will commence any investigations or commence legal action in connection with the restatements discussed above. Any such investigations may result in us being subject to criminal and civil penalties and other remedial measures, which could have an adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
Inflation can have a significant adverse effect on our operations.
Inflation can have a major adverse impact on our citrus operations and there have been significant ongoing inflationary developments in the United States. It is uncertain as to whether these ongoing inflationary pressures will continue, will increase or will be brought under control. Our citrus operations are most affected by escalating costs and unpredictable revenues and high irrigation water costs. High fixed water costs related to our citrus lands will continue to adversely affect
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earnings. Prices received for many of our products are dependent upon prevailing market conditions and commodity prices. Therefore, in addition to making it difficult to accurately predict revenue, we are unable to pass on cost increases caused by general inflation, except to the extent reflected in market conditions and commodity prices. As a result, if market conditions and commodity prices do not enable us to pass along such cost increases, these recent and future inflationary pressures would likely negatively affect our results of operations, cash flows and/or financial position.
Macroeconomic conditions, such as rising inflation, the deadly conflicts in Ukraine and Israel, and the COVID-19 pandemic could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
During the year ended September 30, 2023, we continued to experience inflationary pressure on transportation and commodity costs, which we expect to continue through 2024. A number of external factors, including the deadly conflicts in Ukraine and Israel, as well as responses to such events including sanctions or other restrictive actions, by the United States and/or other countries, the COVID-19 pandemic, adverse weather conditions, increases in fuel prices, supply chain disruptions (including raw material shortages) and labor shortages have impacted, and may continue to impact, transportation and commodity costs and create significant macroeconomic uncertainty. When prices increase, we may or may not pass on such increases to our customers without suffering reduced volume, revenue, margins and operating results. The extent to which current macroeconomic conditions will continue to impact our results will depend on future developments, which are uncertain. Potential negative impacts of these uncertain conditions could include, but are not limited to, the following:
Reduction in customer demand for citrus products and decreased consumer spending levels, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations;
Potential disruption of services and deliveries of equipment and supplies on which we rely to produce and deliver our harvested citrus to producers and fulfilling deliveries to production plants, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business or reputation;
We may be unable to obtain financing in the current economic environment on terms that are favorable or acceptable to us, or at all, which could impair our cash flows and restrict our ability to execute on our strategic initiatives and react to changes in our business or the environment;
There could be increased volatility in our stock price, which could result in the loss of some or all of the value of an investment in the Company; and
Our ability to maintain our workforce during these uncertain times, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
We incur increased costs as a result of being a publicly traded company.
As a company with publicly traded securities, we have incurred, and will continue to incur, significant legal, accounting and other expenses. In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, as well as rules promulgated by the SEC and Nasdaq, require us to adopt corporate governance practices applicable to U.S. public companies. These laws, rules and regulations may continue to increase our legal and financial compliance costs, which could adversely affect the trading price of our common stock.
System security risks, data protection breaches, cyber-attacks and systems integration issues could disrupt our internal operations or services provided to customers, and any such disruption could reduce our expected revenues, increase our expenses, damage our reputation and adversely affect our stock price.
Computer programmers and hackers may be able to penetrate our network security and misappropriate or compromise our confidential information or that of third parties, create system disruptions or cause shutdowns. Computer programmers and hackers also may be able to develop and deploy viruses, worms, and other malicious software programs that attack our systems and databases or otherwise exploit any security vulnerabilities of our systems and databases. In addition, sophisticated hardware and operating system software and applications that we develop internally or procure from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture, including “bugs” and other problems that could unexpectedly interfere with the operation of the system. The costs to us to eliminate or alleviate cyber or other security problems, bugs, viruses, worms, malicious software programs and security vulnerabilities could be significant, and our efforts to address these problems may not be successful and could result in interruptions, delays, cessation of service and loss of existing or potential customers that may impede our sales, distribution or other critical functions.
Portions of our information technology infrastructure also may experience interruptions, delays or cessations of service or produce errors in connection with systems integration or migration work that takes place from time to time. We may not be successful in implementing new systems and transitioning data, which could cause business disruptions and be more expensive, time consuming, disruptive and resource intensive. Such disruptions could adversely impact our ability to track sales and could interrupt other operational or financial processes, which in turn could adversely affect our financial results, stock price and reputation.
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Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
We maintain a significant amount of indebtedness, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows, and may limit our operational and financing flexibility and negatively impact our business.
As of September 30, 2023, we had $129,319 thousand in principal amount of indebtedness outstanding under our secured credit facilities, and an additional availability of $70,030 thousand is available under our working capital and revolving lines of credit. Our loan agreements, as well as other debt instruments we may enter into in the future, may have negative consequences to us and could limit our business because we will use a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations to pay debt service costs, which will reduce the funds available to us for corporate and general expenses and it may make us more vulnerable to economic downturns and adverse developments in our business. Our loan agreements require us to comply with various restrictive covenants, and some contain financial covenants that require us to comply with specified financial ratios and tests. Our failure to meet these covenants could result in default under these loan agreements and would result in a cross-default under other loan agreements. In the event of a default and our inability to obtain a waiver of the default, all amounts outstanding under loan agreements could be declared immediately due and payable. Our loan agreements also contain various covenants that limit our ability to engage in specified types of transactions. We expect that we will depend primarily upon our citrus operations to provide funds to pay our corporate and general expenses and to pay any amounts that may become due under any credit facilities and any other indebtedness we may incur. We intend to use a portion of the proceeds from the sale of 17,229 acres of the Alico Ranch, expected to close between December 2023 and February 2024, to repay variable rate debt. Following completion of this sale, we will have sold substantially all of the Alico Ranch, which is under-productive land. Land available for sale in the future to raise additional funds consists primarily of productive land, the disposition of which may negatively affect our citrus business revenue stream. In addition, there are factors beyond our control that could negatively affect our citrus business revenue stream. Our ability to make these payments depends on our future performance, which will be affected by various financial, business, macroeconomic and other factors, many of which we cannot control.
We may be unable to generate sufficient cash flow to service our debt obligations.
To service our debt, we require a significant amount of cash. Our ability to generate cash, make scheduled payments or refinance our obligations depends on our successful financial and operating performance. Our financial and operating performance, cash flow and capital resources depend upon prevailing economic conditions and various financial, business, and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include, among others:
Economic and competitive conditions;
Changes in laws and regulations;
Operating difficulties, increased operating costs or pricing pressures we may experience; and
Delays in implementing any strategic projects.
If our cash flow and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell material assets or operations, obtain additional capital or restructure our debt. If we are required to take any actions referred to above, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we cannot assure investors that we would be able to take any of these actions on terms acceptable to us, or at all, or that these actions would enable us to continue to satisfy our capital requirements, or that these actions would be permitted under the terms of our various debt agreements.
Some of our debt is based on variable rates of interest, which could result in higher interest expenses in the event of an increase in the interest rates.
Our credit facility and certain of our term loans that we have currently bear interest at variable rates, which will generally change as interest rates change. Currently, we are experiencing, and are expecting to continue to experience, increases in interest on our variable rate term loans. We bear the risk that the rates we are charged by our lenders will increase faster than the earnings and cash flow of our business, which could reduce profitability, adversely affect our ability to service our debt, cause us to breach covenants contained in our credit facility and term loans, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Risks Related to our Common Stock

The market price of our common stock may be volatile or decline, and you may not be able to resell your shares at or above the price you initially paid for our common stock.

The trading price of our common stock could be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment. The following factors, in addition to other factors described in this ”Risk Factors” section and included elsewhere in this document may have a significant impact on the market price of our common stock:

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the occurrence of severe weather conditions and other catastrophes;
our operating and financial performance, quarterly or annual earnings relative to similar companies;
publication of research reports or news stories about us, our competitors or our industry, or positive or negative recommendations or withdrawal of research coverage by securities analysts;
the public’s reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;
announcements by us or our competitors of acquisitions, business plans or commercial relationships;
any major change in our board of directors or senior management;
additional sales of our common stock by us, our directors, executive officers, or principal shareholders;
adverse market reaction to any indebtedness we may incur or securities we may issue in the future;
short sales, hedging and other derivative transactions in our common stock;
exposure to capital market risks related to changes in interest rates, realized investment losses, credit spreads, equity prices, foreign exchange rates and performance of insurance- linked investments;
our creditworthiness, financial condition, performance, and prospects;
our dividend policy and whether dividends on our common stock have been, and are likely to be, declared and paid from time to time;
any repurchases by us of any of our outstanding shares of common stock under our share repurchase plan;
perceptions of the investment opportunity associated with our common stock relative to other investment alternatives;
regulatory or legal developments;
changes in general market, economic, and political conditions;
terrorism and/or instability, unrest and wars, such as the conflicts involving Ukraine and Russia or Israel and its surrounding regions, and other international conflicts;
conditions or trends in our industry, geographies or customers;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles; and
threatened or actual litigation or government investigations.

We may not be able to continue to pay or maintain our cash dividends on our common stock and the failure to do so may negatively affect our share price.
We have historically paid regular quarterly dividends to the holders of our common stock and in December 2022 announced a reduction in our quarterly dividend to $0.05 per common share, from $0.50 per common share. Our ability to pay cash dividends depends on, among other things, our cash flows from operations, our cash requirements, our financial condition, the degree to which we are/or become leveraged, contractual restrictions binding on us, provisions of applicable law and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant. There can be no assurance that we will generate sufficient cash from continuing operations in the future or have sufficient cash surplus or net profits to pay dividends on our common stock. Our dividend policy is based upon our directors’ current assessment of our business and the environment in which we operate, and that assessment could change based on business developments (which could, for example, increase our need for capital expenditures) or new growth opportunities. Our Board of Directors may, at its discretion, decrease the level of cash dividends, or entirely discontinue the payment of cash dividends. The reduction or elimination of cash dividends may negatively affect the market price of our common stock.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
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Item 2. Properties
As of September 30, 2023, we owned approximately 72,000 acres of land located in eight counties in Florida. Acreage in each county and the primary classification with respect to the present use of these properties is shown in the following table:
TotalHendryPolkCollierDeSotoGladesCharlotteHardeeHighlands
Alico Citrus:
Citrus Groves48,9278,9007,0547,05621,5902,5215821,224
Citrus Nursery2222
Total Citrus Groves48,9498,9007,0547,05621,6122,5215821,224
Land Management and Other Operations22,32818,7223,606
Mining526526
Total71,80327,6227,05410,66221,6125262,5215821,224
Approximately 48,949 acres of the properties listed are encumbered by credit agreements totaling $216,500 thousand, of which there was $104,597 thousand outstanding at September 30, 2023. For a more detailed description of the credit agreements and collateral please see Note 6. Long-Term Debt and Lines of Credit to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report.
Although we have mineral rights on substantially all our owned acres, with additional mineral rights on other leased acres, we currently collect mining royalties on only approximately 526 acres of the land included in the table above located in Glades County, Florida and on none of the non-owned lands with respect to which we hold mineral rights. These royalties do not represent a significant portion of operating revenues or gross profits.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we have been, and may in the future be involved in, litigation relating to claims arising out of our operations in the normal course of business. There are no current legal proceedings to which we are a party or of which any of our property is subject that we believe will have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. See Note 14. Commitments and Contingencies to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report for further information.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not Applicable.
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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Common Stock
Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol ALCO.
Holders
On December 4, 2023, our stock transfer records indicated there were 394 holders of record of our common stock. A greater number of holders of our common stock are “street name,” or beneficial holders, whose shares are held by banks, brokers and other financial institutions.
Dividend Policy
The declaration and amount of any actual cash dividend are in the sole discretion of our Board of Directors and are subject to numerous factors that ordinarily affect dividend policy, including the results of our operations and financial position, as well as general economic and business conditions.

The Board of Directors approved a dividend of $0.05 per common share for our fourth quarter fiscal year 2023 in September 2023.
The Board of Directors approved the reduction of our annual dividend to $0.20 per common share in December 2022.
The Board of Directors approved the increase of our annual dividend to $2.00 per common share in June 2021.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None
Item 6. [Reserved]
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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with Part I, Item 1, “Business”, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” and the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes thereto included in this Annual Report commencing on page 42. Our actual results of operations may differ materially from those discussed in forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including, but not limited to, those included in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” and other portions of this Annual Report. A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for the year ended September 30, 2022, as compared to 2021, has been reported previously and may be found under Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended September 30, 2022, filed with the SEC on December 13, 2022.
Business Overview
Business Description
Alico, Inc., together with its subsidiaries (collectively, “Alico”, the “Company”, “we”, “us” or “our”) generates operating revenues primarily from the sale of our citrus products, providing management services to citrus groves owned by third parties, and grazing and hunting leasing. We operate as two business segments, and all of our operating revenues are generated in the United States. For the year ended September 30, 2023, we generated operating revenues of $39,846 thousand, loss from operations of $4,197 thousand, and net income attributable to common stockholders of $1,835 thousand. Net cash used in operating activities was $6,254 thousand for the year ended September 30, 2023. See Part I, Item 1, Business, included in this Annual Report for a discussion of our year highlights.
Business Segments
The Company has two segments as follows:
Alico Citrus includes activities related to planting, owning, cultivating and/or managing citrus groves to produce fruit for sale to fresh and processed citrus markets, including activities related to the purchase and resale of fruit and value-added services, which include contracting for the harvesting, marketing and hauling of citrus; and
Land Management and Other Operations includes activities related to native plant sales, grazing and hunting leasing, management and/or conservation of unimproved native pastureland and activities related to rock mining royalties and other insignificant lines of business. Also included are activities related to owning and/or leasing improved farmland. Improved farmland is acreage that has been converted, or is permitted to be converted, from native pasture and which may have various improvements including irrigation, drainage and roads.
For the year ended September 30, 2023, the Alico Citrus segment generated 95.7% of our consolidated revenues and the Land Management and Other Operations segment generated 4.3% of our consolidated revenues.
Consolidated Results of Operations
The following discussion presented below provides an analysis of our results of operations for the year ended September 30, 2023, as compared to 2022, and the year ended September 30, 2022, as compared to 2021.

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(in thousands)Years Ended
September 30,
ChangeYears Ended
September 30,
Change
20232022$%20222021$%
Operating revenues:
Alico Citrus$38,145 $89,681 $(51,536)(57.5)%$89,681 $105,796 $(16,115)(15.2)%
Land Management and Other Operations1,701 2,266 (565)(24.9)%2,266 2,768 (502)(18.1)%
Total operating revenues39,846 91,947 (52,101)(56.7)%91,947 108,564 (16,617)(15.3)%
Gross profit (loss):
Alico Citrus5,186 (16,511)21,697 (131.4)%(16,511)21,903 (38,414)NM
Land Management and Other Operations1,260 1,746 (486)(27.8)%1,746 1,990 (244)(12.3)%
Total gross profit (loss)6,446 (14,765)21,211 (143.7)%(14,765)23,893 (38,658)NM
General and administrative expenses10,643 10,079 564 5.6 %10,079 9,453 626 6.6 %
(Loss) income from operations(4,197)(24,844)20,647 (83.1)%(24,844)14,440 (39,284)NM
Total other income, net6,656 37,799 (31,143)(82.4)%37,799 31,947 5,852 18.3 %
Income before income taxes2,459 12,955 (10,496)(81.0)%12,955 46,387 (33,432)(72.1)%
Income tax provision801 1,069 (268)(25.1)%1,069 11,567 (10,498)(90.8)%
Net income1,658 11,886 (10,228)(86.1)%11,886 34,820 (22,934)(65.9)%
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests177 573 (396)(69.1)%573 39 534 NM
Net income attributable to Alico, Inc. common stockholders$1,835 $12,459 $(10,624)(85.3)%$12,459 $34,859 $(22,400)(64.3)%
NM - Not Meaningful

The following table presents our operating revenues, by segment, as a percentage of total operating revenues for the years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021:

Years Ended September 30,
202320222021
Operating revenues:
Alico Citrus95.7 %97.5 %97.5 %
Land Management and Other Operations4.3 %2.5 %2.5 %
Total operating revenues100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %



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The following discussion provides an analysis of our operating segments:
Alico Citrus

(in thousands, except per box and per pound solids data)
Years Ended
September 30,
ChangeYears Ended
September 30,
Change
20232022Unit%20222021Unit%
Operating Revenues:
Early and Mid-Season$11,954 $28,287 $(16,333)(57.7)%$28,287 $31,525 $(3,238)(10.3)%
Valencias23,906 47,529 (23,623)(49.7)%47,529 55,918 (8,389)(15.0)%
Fresh Fruit and other1,051 1,937 (886)(45.7)%1,937 1,370 567 41.4 %
Grove Management Services1,234 11,928 (10,694)(89.7)%11,928 16,983 (5,055)(29.8)%
Total$38,145 $89,681 $(51,536)(57.5)%$89,681 $105,796 $(16,115)(15.2)%
Boxes Harvested:
Early and Mid-Season979 2,175 (1,196)(55.0)%2,175 2,519 (344)(13.7)%
Valencias1,669 3,274 (1,605)(49.0)%3,274 3,779 (505)(13.4)%
Total Processed2,648 5,449 (2,801)(51.4)%5,449 6,298 (849)(13.5)%
Fresh Fruit41 91 (50)(54.9)%91 61 30 49.2 %
Total2,689 5,540 (2,851)(51.5)%5,540 6,359 (819)(12.9)%
Pound Solids Produced:
Early and Mid-Season4,586 11,034 (6,448)(58.4)%11,034 13,598 (2,564)(18.9)%
Valencias8,702 17,756 (9,054)(51.0)%17,756 22,042 (4,286)(19.4)%
Total13,288 28,790 (15,502)(53.8)%28,790 35,640 (6,850)(19.2)%
Pound Solids per Box:
Early and Mid-Season4.68 5.07 (0.39)(7.7)%5.07 5.40 (0.33)(6.1)%
Valencias5.21 5.42 (0.21)(3.9)%5.42 5.83 (0.41)(7.0)%
Price per Pound Solids:
Early and Mid-Season$2.61 $2.56 $0.05 2.0 %$2.56 $2.32 $0.24 10.3 %
Valencias$2.75 $2.68 $0.07 2.6 %$2.68 $2.54 $0.14 5.5 %
Price per Box:
Fresh Fruit$14.02 $13.80 $0.22 1.6 %$13.80 $9.97 $3.83 38.5 %
Operating Expenses:
Cost of Sales$50,961 $81,944 $(30,983)(37.8)%$81,944 $55,660 $26,284 47.2 %
Harvesting and Hauling10,573 15,965 (5,392)(33.8)%15,965 16,922 (957)(5.7)%
Fresh Fruit and other(29,326)(2,264)(27,062)NM(2,264)(3,773)1,509 (40.0)%
Grove Management Services751 10,547 (9,796)(92.9)%10,547 15,084 (4,537)(30.1)%
Total$32,959 $106,192 $(73,233)(69.0)%$106,192 $83,893 $22,299 26.6 %
NM - Not Meaningful

Components of Results of Operations for Alico Citrus Segment
Our citrus groves produce the majority of our annual operating revenues and the citrus grove business is seasonal because it is tied to the growing and harvest season. Historically, the second and third quarters of our year produce the majority of the annual revenues and working capital requirements are typically greater in the first and fourth quarters of our year, coinciding with the growing cycles.
We sell our Early and Mid-Season and Valencia oranges to processors that convert the majority of the citrus crop into orange juice. The processors generally buy the citrus crop on a pound solids basis, which is the measure of the soluble solids (sugars and acids) contained in one box of fruit. Our fresh fruit is generally sold to packing houses that purchase
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citrus on a per box basis. We also provide citrus grove caretaking and harvest and haul management services to third parties from which revenues are generated, including a management fee. Other revenues consist of the purchase and reselling of fruit.
Our operating expenses consist primarily of cost of sales, harvesting and hauling costs and grove management service costs. Cost of sales represents the cost of maintaining the citrus groves for the preceding calendar year and does not vary in relation to production. Harvesting and hauling costs represent the costs of bringing citrus product to processors and vary, based upon the number of boxes produced. Grove management services include those costs associated with citrus grove caretaking and harvest and haul management services provided to third parties. Other expenses include the period costs of reselling third-party fruit.

Comparison of the year ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 for the Alico Citrus Segment
The decrease in revenue for the year ended September 30, 2023, compared to the year ended September 30, 2022, was primarily due to an increase in fruit drop caused by the impact of Hurricane Ian, which in turn reduced our harvest of both the Early and Mid-Season and Valencia fruit. In addition, we had a decrease in Grove Management Services revenues, from $11,928 thousand for the year ended September 30, 2022, to $1,234 thousand for the year ended September 30, 2023, due to the termination of the Property Management Agreement (see “The Land We Manage” in Item 1. Business for further details). We recorded approximately $751 thousand and $10,547 thousand of operating expenses relating to grove management services for the Grove Owners for the years ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
The decrease in Early and Mid-Season and Valencia fruit harvested was primarily driven by a decrease in processed box production and a decrease in pound solids per box. The processed box production for the year ended September 30, 2023 decreased by 51.4%, as compared to the same period in the prior year, primarily due to greater fruit drop attributed to disease and weather conditions.
The aggregate decrease in pound solids per box of 5.8% during the year ended September 30, 2023, as compared to the prior year ended September 30, 2022, was mainly due to the internal quality of the fruit not being as strong as it had been in the previous year. This decrease in pound solids per box was also due in part to an acceleration of the harvesting of the Early and Mid-Season and Valencia crops to maximize the box production and avoid additional fruit drop as a result of the impact of Hurricane Ian.

Partially offsetting the decrease in processed box production and pound solids per box for the year ended September 30, 2023, compared to the year ended September 30, 2022, was an increase in the price per pound solid of 2.6%. The increase, in large part, was due to production being down in Florida, as well as in Brazil, and due to the continued strong consumption of Not from Concentrate Orange Juice (“NFC”), both of which have led to continued low inventory levels.
We also recorded a decrease in revenue from sales of Fresh Fruit. The decrease in sales of Fresh Fruit was primarily due to a decrease in both boxes sold and pricing per box.
The USDA, in its October 12, 2023 Citrus Crop Forecast Report for the 2023-24 harvest season, indicated the overall Florida orange crop decreased from approximately 41,200,000 boxes for the 2021-22 crop year to approximately 15,800,000 boxes for the 2022-23 crop year, a decrease of 61.7%. We experienced a decline in total box production in the 2022-2023 harvest season crop of 51.5%. We believe this lower rate of decline, as compared to the state forecast, is due to the efficiencies of our comprehensive grove management program, as well as certain precautionary measures we took to minimize the impact of the freeze event on its groves and production.
The decrease in operating expenses for the year ended September 30, 2023, as compared to the year ended September 30, 2022, primarily relates to the inventory adjustments recorded at September 30, 2022 on the ending inventory balance, as a result of the impact of Hurricane Ian, which effectively lowered the inventory to be expensed in the year ended September 30, 2023, as well as the receipt of approximately $27,389 thousand in crop insurance and $839 thousand in property and casualty reimbursements for Hurricane Ian. We experienced significant cost increases in fertilizer, herbicide, labor and fuel in maintaining our groves. These cost increases, coupled with the timing of the harvest, and the lower box production for both our Early and Mid-Season and Valencia harvest, resulted in a higher cost of sales per box for the year ended September 30, 2023, as compared to the same period in the prior year. In addition, we incurred additional costs related to the clean-up and repairs as a result of Hurricane Ian.
We also recorded an increase in our Harvesting and Hauling expense per box, which is directly related to an increase in the harvesting labor costs, as well as the increased time spent by the harvesters to fill the boxes as a result of the increased fruit drop caused by Hurricane Ian for the year ended September 30, 2023, when compared to the prior year.
The decrease in Grove Management Services expense is directly related to the termination of the Property Management Agreement by the Grove Owners in June 2022. We recorded approximately $751 thousand and $10,547 thousand of operating expenses relating to grove management services for the Grove Owners for the years ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
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The credit amounts shown in “Fresh Fruit and other” in operating expenses above primarily represent insurance proceeds of approximately $27,389 thousand in crop insurance and $839 thousand in property and casualty reimbursements for Hurricane Ian received in the year ended September 30, 2023, and federal relief proceeds received under the CRBG program in the years ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 of approximately $1,315 thousand and $1,123 thousand, respectively.
Land Management and Other Operations
The table below presents key operating measures for the years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021:
(in thousands)
Years Ended
September 30,
Change Years Ended
September 30,
Change
20232022$%20222021$%
Revenue From:
Land and Other Leasing$1,327 $1,655 $(328)(19.8)%$1,655 $2,404 $(749)(31.2)%
Other374 611 (237)(38.8)%611 364 247 67.9 %
Total$1,701 $2,266 $(565)(24.9)%$2,266 $2,768 $(502)(18.1)%
Operating Expenses:
Land and Other Leasing$436 $516 $(80)(15.5)%$516 $762 $(246)(32.3)%
Other25.0 %16 (12)(75.0)%
Total$441 $520 $(79)(15.2)%$520 $778 $(258)(33.2)%
Components of Results of Operations for Land Management and Other Operations Segment
Land and other leasing include lease income from leases for grazing rights, hunting leases, a farm lease, a lease to a third party of an aggregate mine, leases of oil extraction rights to third parties, and other miscellaneous income.
Land and Other Leasing operating expenses include real estate, property taxes, and general and administrative expenses, including salaries, benefits and legal and professional fees.

Comparison of the year ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 for the Land Management and Other Operations Segment
The decrease in revenues from Land Management and Other Operations for the year ended September 30, 2023, as compared to the prior year, was primarily due to a decrease in grazing and hunting lease revenue due to the sales of portions of the Alico Ranch, which resulted in the reduction of land covered under our grazing and hunting lease contracts. Additionally, the modification to the grazing leases resulted in a reduction in the ad valorem taxes due from the lessees, as we revised the grazing lease agreements due to the sale of certain of the ranch acres previously covered under the agreement.
The decrease in operating expenses from Land Management and Other Operations for the year ended September 30, 2023, as compared to the prior year, was primarily due to the reduction of the ad valorem tax expense as a result of us owning fewer ranch acres due to the sale of ranch land.

The following discussion provides an analysis of our results of operation, as a whole:
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses for the year ended September 30, 2023 was $10,643 thousand, compared to $10,079 thousand for the year ended September 30, 2022. The increase was principally attributable to an increase in legal and professional fees, as compared to the same period last year.
Other Income, net
Other income, net, for the years ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 was $6,656 thousand and $37,799 thousand, respectively. The decrease in other income, net was primarily due to less ranch land sales, which resulted in lower gains on sales of $11,509 thousand during the year ended September 30, 2023, compared to $41,102 thousand for the prior year period.
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Income Taxes
For the years ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, the provision for income taxes was $801 thousand and $1,069 thousand, respectively, and the related effective income tax rates were 32.6% and 8.3%, respectively. The effective tax rate for the year ended September 30, 2023 is higher than the statutory tax rate due to the deferred rate change and return-to-provision adjustments, which was partially offset by a reduction in the valuation allowance. The effective tax rate for the year ended September 30, 2022 was lower than the statutory tax rate due to the bargain sale of 1,638 acres of land to the state of Florida at a price below market value, which resulted in a charitable contribution carryover for tax purposes. The bargain sale generated a tax benefit of $6,300 thousand, of which $500 thousand was utilized in the prior year, none of which was used in the current year. We do not anticipate that we will be able to recognize the entire charitable deduction carryover before it expires in 2027. A valuation allowance of $4,309 thousand was recorded on September 30, 2022, resulting in a net benefit of $1,468 thousand. As of September 30, 2023 the valuation allowance was reduced to $4,170 thousand, resulting in a benefit of $139 thousand.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
A comparative balance sheet summary is presented in the following table:
(in thousands)September 30,
2023
September 30,
2022
Change
Cash and cash equivalents$1,062 $865 $197 
Total current assets$58,805 $31,616 $27,189 
Total current liabilities$15,065 $16,525 $(1,460)
Working capital$43,740 $15,091 $28,649 
Total assets$428,353 $409,255 $19,098 
Principal amount of term loans and lines of credit$129,319 $111,624 $17,695 
Current ratio3.90 to 11.91 to 1
Debt ratio0.30 to 10.27 to 1
Sources and Uses of Liquidity and Capital
Our business has historically generated positive net cash flows from operating activities. Sources of cash primarily include cash flows from operations, sales of under-performing land and other assets, amounts available under our credit facilities and access to capital markets. Access to additional borrowings under revolving lines of credit is subject to the satisfaction of customary borrowing conditions. As a public company, we may have access to other sources of capital. However, access to, and availability of, financing on acceptable terms in the future will be affected by many factors, including (i) financial condition, prospects, and credit rating; (ii) liquidity of the overall capital markets; and (iii) the state of the economy. There can be no assurance that we will continue to have access to the capital markets on acceptable terms, or at all.
The principal uses of cash that affect our liquidity position include the following: operating expenses including employee costs, the cost of maintaining the citrus groves, harvesting and hauling of citrus products, capital expenditures, stock repurchases, dividends, debt service costs including interest and principal payments on term loans and other credit facilities and acquisitions.
Management believes that a combination of cash-on-hand, cash generated from operations, asset sales (see “Recent Developments” in Item 1. Business for further details) and availability under our lines of credit will provide sufficient liquidity to service the principal and interest payments on our indebtedness and will satisfy working capital requirements and capital expenditures for at least the next twelve months and over the long term.
Borrowing Facilities and Long-term Debt
We have a $70,000 thousand working capital line of credit, of which $45,030 thousand is available for general use as of September 30, 2023, and a $25,000 thousand revolving line of credit, all of which is available for general use as of September 30, 2023 (see Note 6. Long-Term Debt and Lines of Credit to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report for further information). The working capital line of credit agreement was amended on October 27, 2022, and the primary terms of the amendment were an extension of the maturity to November 1, 2025, and the conversion of the interest rate from LIBOR plus a spread to SOFR plus a spread, which is adjusted quarterly, based on our debt service coverage ratio for the preceding quarter and can vary from 175 to 250 basis points, effective October 1, 2022. There were no changes to the commitment amount.
The level of debt could have important consequences on our business, including, but not limited to, increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions, limiting the availability of cash flow to fund future
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investments, capital expenditures, working capital, business activities and other general corporate requirements, and limiting flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry.
Our credit facilities are subject to various debt covenants, including the following financial covenants: (i) minimum debt service coverage ratio of 1.10 to 1.00; (ii) tangible net worth of at least $160,000 thousand increased annually by 10% of consolidated net income for the preceding years, or $174,628 thousand applicable for the year ended September 30, 2023; (iii) minimum current ratio of 1.50 to 1.00; (iv) debt to total assets ratio not greater than 0.625 to 1.00; and (v) solely in the case of the WCLC (as defined below), a limit on capital expenditures of $30,000 thousand per year. As of September 30, 2023, we were in compliance with all of the financial covenants.
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
The following table details the items contributing to the changes in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash for the years ended September 30, 2023, 2022 and 2021:
(in thousands)Years Ended September 30,
202320222021
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities$(6,254)$6,523 $16,504 
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities(4,123)22,468 (3,268)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities13,204 (29,012)(32,037)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash$2,827 $(21)$(18,801)

Net Cash (Used In) Provided By Operating Activities
The decrease in net cash used in operating activities for the year ended September 30, 2023, as compared to the year ended September 30, 2022, was primarily due to lower revenues as a result of the fruit drop caused by Hurricane Ian.
Net Cash (Used In) Provided By Investing Activities
The shift to net cash used in investing activities for the year ended September 30, 2023, from net cash provided by investing activities for the year ended September 30, 2022, was driven by lower proceeds from ranch land sales.
Net Cash Provided By (Used In) Financing Activities
The shift to net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended September 30, 2023, from net cash used in financing activities for the year ended September 30, 2022, was primarily due to a net increase in borrowing under the working capital line of credit (“WCLC”) with Rabo Agrifinance, Inc. (“Rabo”), and lower repayments of term loans.
The WCLC agreement provides for Rabo to issue up to $2,000 thousand in letters of credit on our behalf. As of September 30, 2023, there was $248 thousand in outstanding letters of credit, which correspondingly reduced our availability under the line of credit.

Contractual Obligations
Our material cash requirements from known contractual and other obligations are described in the accompanying notes to the financial statements within Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. These include principal and interest payments on long-term debt as described in Note 6. Long-Term Debt and Lines of Credit, operating leases as described in Note 11. Leases and purchase commitments as described in Note 14. Commitments and Contingencies to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP, which requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in those financial statements and accompanying notes. Management considers an accounting policy to be critical if it is important to our financial condition and results of operations and if it requires significant judgment and estimates on the part of management in its application. Management considers an accounting estimate to be critical if it is made in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, involves a significant level of estimation uncertainty, and has had, or is reasonably likely to have, a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations. We consider policies and estimates relating to the following matters to be critical accounting policies:
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Revenue Recognition
We recognize revenue at the amount we expect to be entitled to be paid, determined when control of the products or services is transferred to our customers, which occurs upon delivery of and acceptance of the fruit by the customer and we have a right to payment. For grove management services, we recognize operating revenue, including a management fee, when services are rendered and consumed. Management reviews the reasonableness of the revenue accruals quarterly based on buyers’ and processors’ advances to growers, cash and futures markets and experience in the industry. Adjustments are made throughout the year to these estimates as more current relevant industry information becomes available. Differences between the estimates and the final realization of revenues can be significant and can be either positive or negative. During the periods presented in this Annual Report, no material adjustments were made to the reported revenues from our crops.
Inventories
The costs of growing crops, including, but not limited to, labor, fertilization, fuel, crop nutrition and irrigation, are capitalized into inventory throughout the respective crop year. Such costs are expensed as cost of sales when the crops are harvested and are recorded as operating expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. The cost for unharvested citrus crops is based on accumulated production costs incurred during the period from January 1 through the balance sheet date. In the event that there is a casualty loss due to severe weather or other significant incident which negatively impacts inventory, we will undertake a process to estimate the amount of casualty loss. The process includes a number of factors, including touring all of the citrus groves by operational personnel, to assess the estimated fruit drop by grove and estimate the amount of fruit we expect to produce for the respective harvest season. As a result of this process, we would estimate the amount of casualty loss, if any, to reduce the carrying value of unharvested fruit crop on trees inventory.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and amortization. Major improvements are capitalized while maintenance and repairs are expensed in the period the cost is incurred. Costs related to the development of citrus groves, through planting of trees, are capitalized. Such costs include land clearing, excavation and construction of ditches, dikes, roads and reservoirs among other costs. After the planting, caretaking costs or pre-productive maintenance costs are capitalized for four years. After four years, a grove is considered to have reached maturity and the accumulated costs are depreciated over 25 years, except for land clearing and excavation, which are considered costs of land and not depreciated.
Income Taxes
We use the asset and liability method of accounting for deferred income taxes. The provision for income taxes includes income taxes currently payable and those deferred as a result of temporary differences between the financial statements and the income tax basis of assets and liabilities. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted income tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of a change in income tax rates on deferred income tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income or loss in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is provided to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount of future tax benefit when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Projected future taxable income and ongoing tax planning strategies are considered and evaluated when assessing the need for a valuation allowance. Any increase or decrease in a valuation allowance could have a material adverse or beneficial impact on our income tax provision and net income or loss in the period the determination is made. For the years ended September 30, 2023 and September 30, 2022, we recorded a valuation allowance of $4,170 thousand and $4,309 thousand, respectively. We recognize interest and/or penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense.
We recognize the effect of income tax positions only if those positions are more likely than not of being sustained. Recognized income tax positions are measured at the largest amount that is greater than 50% likely of being realized. Changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which a change in judgment occurs. We record interest related to unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We review our long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable. We record impairment losses on long-lived assets used in operations, other than goodwill, when events and circumstances indicate that the asset or asset group might be impaired and the estimated cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) to be generated by those assets or asset group over the remaining lives of the assets are less than the carrying amounts of those assets. In calculating impairments and the estimated cash flows, we assign its asset groups by determining the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows of the other Company assets. The net carrying values of assets or asset groups not recoverable are reduced to their fair values. Our cash flow estimates are based on historical results adjusted to reflect our best estimates of future market conditions and operating conditions. As of September 30, 2023 and 2022, long-lived assets were comprised of property and equipment.
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Fair Value Measurements
We categorize our financial instruments measured at fair value into a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs used in pricing the asset or liability into a three-tier fair value hierarchy which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:
Level 1 – Observable inputs such as quoted market prices for identical assets and liabilities in active markets;
Level 2 – Inputs, other than the quoted prices for identical assets and liabilities in active markets, for which significant other observable market inputs are readily available; and
Level 3 – Unobservable inputs in which there is little or no market data, such as internally developed valuation models which require the reporting entity to develop its own assumptions.
The carrying amounts of our financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximate their fair values due to the short term and immediate nature of these financial instruments. See Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report for additional information about the fair value of our debt.
As of September 30, 2023 and 2022, we did not have any assets held for sale that had been measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis.
Impact of Accounting Pronouncements
See Item 8. “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” – Note 1. Description of Business and Basis of Presentation to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report for additional information about the impact of accounting pronouncements.
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Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
Market Risk – Market risk represents the potential loss resulting from adverse changes in the value of financial instruments, either derivative or non-derivative, caused by fluctuations in interest rates, foreign exchange rates, commodity prices, and equity security prices. We handle market risks in accordance with our established policies; however, we do not enter into derivatives or other financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes. We do consider, on occasion, the need to enter into financial instruments to manage and reduce the impact of changes in interest rates; however, we entered into no such instruments during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023. We held various financial instruments as of September 30, 2023 and 2022, consisting of financial assets and liabilities reported in our Consolidated Balance Sheets and off-balance sheet exposures resulting from letters of credit issued for our benefit.
Interest Rate Risk – We are subject to interest rate risk from the utilization of financial instruments such as term loan debt and other borrowings. Our primary long-term obligations are fixed rate debts subject to fair value risk due to interest rate fluctuations.
We are also subject to interest rate risk on our variable rate debt. A one-percentage-point increase in prevailing interest rates would have increased interest expense on our variable rate debt obligations by approximately $438 thousand for the year ended September 30, 2023.
Foreign-Exchange Rate Risk – We currently have no exposure to foreign-exchange rate risk because all of our financial transactions are denominated in U.S. dollars.
Commodity Price Risk – We have no financial instruments subject to commodity price risk.
Equity Security Price Risk – None of our financial instruments have potential exposure to equity security price risk.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
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Index to Consolidated Financial Statements
Page
Consolidated Financial Statements:
All schedules are omitted for the reason that they are not applicable or the required information is included in the financial statements or notes.
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm


To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Alico, Inc.


Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Alico, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the Company) as of September 30, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2023, and the related notes to the consolidated financial statements (collectively, the financial statements). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of September 30, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in 2013, and our report dated December 6, 2023 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting.

Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Net Realizable Value of Unharvested Fruit Crop on the Trees
As described within Note 3 to the financial statements, the Company values inventory at the lower of cost or net realizable value. At September 30, 2023, the consolidated inventory balance included unharvested fruit crop on the trees of $50,699,000. The Company assesses the carrying value of unharvested fruit crop on the trees, including the determination of adjustments to net realizable value, by applying judgment in developing estimates such as the expected future crop yield and future citrus pricing.
We identified the net realizable value of unharvested fruit crop on the trees as a critical audit matter because of the significant judgments utilized by management in developing the accounting estimate. Auditing management’s estimates and assumptions required a high degree of auditor judgment and increased audit effort due to the impact these assumptions have on the net realizable value of unharvested fruit crop on the trees.

Our audit procedures related to the Company’s estimates and assumptions of the net realizable value of unharvested fruit crop on the trees included the following, among others:

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We obtained an understanding of the relevant controls related to management’s evaluation of the net realizable value of unharvested fruit crop on the trees, and tested such controls for design and operating effectiveness, including controls around management’s evaluation of the expected future crop yield and future citrus pricing.
We tested the completeness of the population of unharvested fruit crop on the trees that were subject to net realizable value adjustments.
We recalculated the mathematical accuracy of the net realizable value of unharvested fruit crop on the trees.
We performed a comparison of management’s prior forecasts of future crop yield and future citrus pricing to actual results.
We performed site observations and obtained industry data to evaluate the reasonableness of management's estimates of future crop yield and future citrus pricing.
/s/ RSM US LLP

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2007.

Orlando, Florida
December 6, 2023
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm


To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Alico, Inc.


Opinion on the Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We have audited Alico, Inc.'s and its subsidiaries (the Company) internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in 2013. In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in 2013.

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of September 30, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2023, and the related notes to the consolidated financial statements of the Company and our report dated December 6, 2023 expressed an unqualified opinion.

Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting in the accompanying Management Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/ RSM US LLP

Orlando, Florida
December 6, 2023
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ALICO, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share amounts)
September 30,
2023
September 30,
2022
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$1,062 $865 
Accounts receivable, net712 324 
Inventories52,481 27,682 
Income tax receivable1,200 1,116 
Assets held for sale1,632 205 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets1,718 1,424 
Total current assets58,805 31,616 
Restricted cash2,630  
Property and equipment, net361,849 372,479 
Goodwill2,246 2,246 
Other non-current assets2,823 2,914 
Total assets$428,353 $409,255 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$6,311 $3,366 
Accrued liabilities5,363 9,062 
Current portion of long-term debt2,566 3,035 
Other current liabilities825 1,062 
Total current liabilities15,065 16,525 
Long-term debt, net101,410 102,913 
Lines of credit24,722 4,928 
Deferred income tax liabilities, net36,410 35,589 
Other liabilities369 435 
Total liabilities177,976 160,390 
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 14)
Stockholders' equity:
Preferred stock, no par value, 1,000,000 shares authorized; none issued
  
Common stock, $1.00 par value, 15,000,000 shares authorized; 8,416,145 shares issued and 7,610,551 and 7,586,995 shares outstanding at September 30, 2023 and September 30, 2022, respectively
8,416 8,416 
Additional paid in capital20,045 19,784 
Treasury stock, at cost, 806,341 and 829,150 shares held at September 30, 2023 and September 30, 2022, respectively
(27,274)(27,948)
Retained earnings243,804 243,490 
Total Alico stockholders' equity244,991 243,742 
Noncontrolling interest5,386 5,123 
Total stockholders' equity250,377 248,865 
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity$428,353 $409,255 
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
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ALICO, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
Years Ended September 30,
202320222021
Operating revenues:
Alico Citrus$38,145 $89,681 $105,796 
Land Management and Other Operations1,701 2,266 2,768 
Total operating revenues39,846 91,947 108,564 
Operating expenses:
Alico Citrus32,959 106,192 83,893 
Land Management and Other Operations441 520 778 
Total operating expenses33,400 106,712 84,671 
Gross profit (loss)6,446 (14,765)23,893 
General and administrative expenses10,643 10,079 9,453 
(Loss) income from operations(4,197)(24,844)14,440 
Other income (expense), net:
Investment and interest income, net58 21 23 
Interest expense(4,911)(3,324)(3,987)
Gain on sale of property and equipment 11,509 41,102 35,898 
Other income, net  13 
Total other income, net6,656 37,799 31,947 
Income before income taxes2,459 12,955 46,387 
Income tax provision801 1,069 11,567 
Net income1,658 11,886 34,820 
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests177 573 39 
Net income attributable to Alico, Inc. common stockholders$1,835 $12,459 $34,859 
Per share information attributable to Alico, Inc. common stockholders:
Earnings per common share:
Basic$0.24 $1.65 $4.64 
Diluted$0.24 $1.65 $4.64 
Weighted-average number of common shares outstanding:
Basic7,6027,5607,516
Diluted7,6027,5687,519
Cash dividends declared per common share$0.20 $2.00 $1.36 
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
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ALICO, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY
(in thousands)
Common stockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Treasury
Stock
Retained
Earnings
Total
Alico,
Inc.
Equity
Non-
controlling
Interest
Total
Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
September 30, 20208,416$8,416 $19,685 924 $(30,779)$221,531 $218,853 $5,441 $224,294 
Net income (loss)— — — — 34,859 34,859 (39)34,820 
Dividends— — — — (10,227)(10,227)— (10,227)
Stock-based compensation— 304 (33)926 — 1,230 — 1,230 
September 30, 20218,4168,416 19,989 890 (29,853)246,163 244,715 5,402 250,117 
Net income (loss)— — — — 12,459 12,459 (573)11,886 
Dividends— — — — (15,132)(15,132)— (15,132)
Capital contribution received from noncontrolling interest— — — — — — 294 294 
Executives stock exercises— 34 — 431 — 465 — 465 
Stock-based compensation— (239)(61)1,474 — 1,235 — 1,235 
September 30, 20228,4168,416 19,784 829 (27,948)243,490 243,742 5,123 248,865 
Net income (loss)— — — — 1,835 1,835 (177)1,658 
Dividends— — — — (1,521)(1,521)— (1,521)
Capital contribution received from noncontrolling interest— — — — — — 440 440 
Stock-based compensation— 261 (23)674 — 935 — 935 
September 30, 20238,416$8,416 $20,045 806 $(27,274)$243,804 $244,991 $5,386 $250,377 
    
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
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ALICO, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands)
Years Ended September 30,
202320222021
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities:
Net income$1,658 $11,886 $34,820 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash (used in) provided by operating activities:
Depreciation, depletion and amortization15,487 15,229 15,122 
Debt issue costs expense141 255 179 
Deferred income tax provision (benefit)821 (3,876)2,249 
Gain on sale of property and equipment (11,509)(41,102)(35,898)
Inventory net realizable value adjustment1,616 6,676  
Casualty loss – tree and building damage 1,400  
Loss on disposal of property and equipment9,624 3,251 2,338 
Inventory casualty loss 14,900  
Stock-based compensation expense935 1,235 1,230 
Other, net(2)160 (117)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable(388)5,781 (1,758)
Inventories(26,415)(5,881)(2,522)
Prepaid expenses(294)(271)(115)
Income tax receivable(84)2,117 (2,452)
Other assets235 (450)575 
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities2,420 (5,111)3,429 
Other liabilities(499)324 (576)
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities(6,254)6,523 16,504 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchases of property and equipment(16,656)(20,731)(22,258)
Acquisition of citrus groves(77)(136)(18,527)
Proceeds from sale of property and equipment11,359 43,159 37,266 
Proceeds from property and casualty insurance839   
Other, net412 176 251 
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities(4,123)22,468 (3,268)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Repayments on revolving lines of credit(59,458)(52,227)(50,735)
Borrowings on revolving lines of credit79,252 57,155 47,793 
Principal payments on term loans(2,098)(19,598)(21,957)
Capital contribution received from noncontrolling interest441 294  
Proceeds from exercise of stock options 465  
Dividends paid(4,933)(15,101)(7,138)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities13,204 (29,012)(32,037)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash2,827 (21)(18,801)
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of the period865 886 19,687 
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of the period$3,692 $865 $886 
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:
Cash paid for interest; net of amount capitalized$4,433 $3,192 $3,940 
Cash paid for income taxes$ $3,430 $11,770 
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing and financing activities:
Dividends declared but unpaid$