Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Revenues are derived from the sale of processed fruit, fresh fruit, other citrus revenue, leasing revenue and other resource revenues. The majority of the revenue is generated from the sale of citrus fruit to processing facilities, fresh fruit sales and grove management services.
For fruit sales, the Company recognizes revenue at the amount it expects to be entitled to be paid, determined when control of the products or services is transferred to its customers, which occurs upon delivery of and acceptance of the fruit by the customer and the Company has a right to payment.
The Company has identified one performance obligation as the delivery of fruit to the processing facility (or harvesting of the citrus in the case of fresh fruit) of the customer for each separate variety of fruit identified in the contract. The Company initially recognizes revenue in an amount which is estimated based on contractual and market prices, if such market price falls within the range (known as “floor” and “ceiling” prices) identified in the specific contracts. Additionally, the Company also has a contractual agreement whereby revenue is determined based on applying a cost-plus structure methodology. As such, since these contracts contain elements of variable consideration, the Company recognizes this variable consideration by using the expected value method. On a quarterly basis, management reviews the reasonableness of the revenues accrued based on buyers’ and processors’ advances to growers, cash and futures markets and experience in the industry. Adjustments are made throughout the year to these estimates as more current relevant industry information becomes available. Differences between the estimates and the final realization of revenues at the close of the harvesting season can result in either an increase or decrease to reported revenues. During the periods presented, no material adjustments were made to the reported citrus revenues.
Receivables under contracts, whereby pricing is based on contractual and market prices, are primarily paid at the floor amount and are collected within seven days after the harvest week. Any adjustments to pricing as a result of changes in market prices are collected or paid thirty to sixty days after final market pricing is published. Receivables under contracts, whereby pricing is based off a cost-plus structure methodology, are paid at the final prior year rate. Any adjustments to pricing as a result of the cost-plus calculation are collected or paid upon finalization of the calculation and agreement by both parties. As of September 30, 2020 and 2019, the Company had total receivables relating to sales of citrus of $584,000 and $160,000, respectively, recorded in Accounts Receivable, net, in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
For grove management services, the Company has identified one performance obligation relating to the management of the third party’s groves. Grove management services include caretaking of the citrus groves, harvesting and hauling of citrus, management and coordination of citrus sales and other related activities. The Company is reimbursed for expenses incurred in the execution of its management duties and the Company receives a per acre management fee. The Company recognizes operating revenue, including a management fee, and corresponding operating expenses when services are rendered and consumed.
Revenues disaggregated by significant products and services for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018 are as follows:
During the time that Alico was engaged in the business of raising and selling cattle, Alico recognized revenues from cattle sales at the time the cattle were delivered.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying amounts of the Company’s financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximate their fair values due to the short term and immediate nature of these financial instruments. The carrying amounts of the Company’s debt approximates fair value as the debt is with commercial lenders at interest rates that vary with market conditions or have fixed rates that approximate market rates for obligations with similar terms and maturities (see Note 8. “Fair Value Measurements”).
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers cash in banks and highly liquid instruments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash and cash equivalents. At various times throughout the fiscal year, and as of September 30, 2020, some accounts held at financial institutions were in excess of the federally insured limit of $250,000. The Company has not experienced any losses on these accounts and believes credit risk to be minimal.
Restricted cash is comprised of certain cash receipts from the sale of property which was being held specifically for the purpose of deferring a tax impact on the gain on sale of the property and other cash received from the sale of certain assets in which the use of funds were restricted.
In September 2020, the Company sold certain sections of the West Ranch, from which a portion of the net cash proceeds amounting to $16,524,000 were being held by a qualified intermediary in coordination to purchase a like-kind asset and defer a portion of the gain on sale of the ranch land. Such funds were included in restricted cash. In October 2020, the Company closed on a purchase of a like-kind asset and used all of these net cash proceeds which was being held by the intermediary (see Note 17. “Subsequent Events”).
For certain sales transactions, the Company sells property which serves as collateral for specific debt obligations. As a result, the sale proceeds are only permitted to be used to purchase like-kind citrus groves acceptable to the debt holder or to pay down existing debt obligations and thus are included in restricted cash. For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019, the Company utilized restricted cash of $1,800,000 towards the purchase of citrus groves. Such purchases are included as part of the collateral under certain debt obligations. Additionally, in November 2019, the Company utilized restricted cash to pay down existing debt, including outstanding interest on such debt, in the amount of $4,489,000. In July 2020, the remaining restricted cash of approximately $719,000 relating to collateral property under debt obligations, including interest earned in the account, was released without further obligation to the Company.
Accounts receivable from customers are generated from revenues based on the sale of citrus, grove management, leasing and other transactions. The Company grants credit in the course of its operations to third party customers. The Company performs periodic credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition and generally does not require collateral. The Company provides an allowance for doubtful accounts for amounts which are not probable of collection. The estimate, evaluated quarterly by the Company, is based on historical collection experience, current macroeconomic climate and market conditions and a review of the current status of each customer’s account. Changes in the financial viability of significant customers and worsening of economic conditions may require changes to its estimate of the recoverability of the receivables. Such changes in estimates are recorded in the period in which these changes become known. The bad debt expense is included in general and administrative expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The following table presents accounts receivable, net as of September 30, 2020 and 2019:
Accounts receivable from the Company’s major customer as of September 30, 2020 and 2019 and revenue from such customers for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018, are as follows:
The citrus industry is subject to various factors over which growers have limited or no control, including weather conditions, disease, pestilence, water supply and market price fluctuations. Market prices are highly sensitive to aggregate domestic and foreign crop sizes, as well as factors including, but not limited to, weather and competition from foreign countries.
In recognizing revenues from land sales, the Company applies specific revenue recognition criteria, in accordance with U.S. GAAP, to determine when land sales revenues can be recorded. For example, in order to fully recognize a gain resulting from a real estate transaction, the sale must be consummated with a sufficient down payment of at least 20% to 25% of the sales price depending upon the type and timeframe for development of the property sold and any receivable from the sale cannot be subject to future subordination. In addition, the seller cannot retain any material continuing involvement in the property sold. When these criteria are not met, the Company recognizes a gain proportionate to collections utilizing either the installment method or deposit method as appropriate.
The costs of growing crops, including but not limited to labor, fertilization, fuel, crop nutrition, irrigation, and depreciation, are capitalized into inventory throughout the respective crop year. Such costs are expensed as cost of sales when the crops are harvested and are recorded as operating expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. The cost for unharvested citrus crops is based on accumulated production costs incurred during the period from January 1 through the balance sheet date.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization. Major improvements are capitalized while expenditures for maintenance and repairs are expensed when incurred. Costs related to the development of citrus groves through planting of trees are capitalized. Such costs include land clearing, excavation and construction of ditches, dikes, roads, and reservoirs, among other costs. After the planting, caretaking costs or pre-productive maintenance costs are capitalized for 4 years. After 4 years, a planting is considered to have reached maturity and the accumulated costs are depreciated over 25 years, except for land clearing and excavation, which are considered costs of land and not depreciated.
Real estate costs incurred for the acquisition, development and construction of real estate projects are capitalized.
Depreciation is provided on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the depreciable assets, with the exception of leasehold improvements and assets acquired through capital leases, which are depreciated over their estimated useful lives if the lease transfers ownership or contains a bargain purchase option, otherwise the term of the lease.
The estimated useful lives for property and equipment are primarily as follows:
Changes in circumstances, such as technological advances or changes to our business model or capital strategy could result in the actual useful lives differing from the original estimates. In those cases where the Company determines that the useful life of property and equipment should be shortened, Alico depreciates the asset over its revised estimated remaining useful life, thereby increasing depreciation expense (see Note 5. “Property and Equipment, Net”).
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company reviews its long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable. The Company records impairment losses on long-lived assets used in operations, or asset group, when events and circumstances indicate that the assets might be impaired and the estimated cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) to be generated by those assets or asset group over the remaining lives of the assets or asset group are less than the carrying amounts of those assets. In calculating impairments and the estimated cash flows, the Company assigns its asset groups by determining the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows of the other Company assets. The net carrying values of assets or asset group not recoverable are reduced to their fair values. Alico's cash flow estimates are based on historical results adjusted to reflect best estimates of future market conditions and operating conditions. For fiscal years ended September 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018, the Company recorded impairments to its long-lived assets (see Note 5. “Property and Equipment, Net”). As of September 30, 2020 and 2019, long-lived assets were comprised of property and equipment.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price of acquired businesses over the fair value of the assets acquired less liabilities assumed in connection with such acquisition. In accordance with the provisions of ASC 350, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other, goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives acquired in an acquisition are not amortized, but instead are tested for impairment at least annually, on the same date, or more frequently should an event occur or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may be impaired. Such events or circumstances may be a significant change in business climate, economic and industry trends, legal factors, negative operating performance indicators, significant competition, changes in strategy or disposition of a reporting unit or a portion thereof.
In the evaluation of goodwill for impairment, Alico has the option to perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether further impairment testing is necessary or to perform a quantitative assessment by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying amount, including goodwill. Under the qualitative assessment, an entity is not required to calculate the fair value of a reporting unit unless the entity determines that it is more likely than not that its fair value is less than its carrying amount. If, under the quantitative assessment, the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then the amount of the impairment loss, if any, must be measured under step two of the impairment analysis. In step two of the analysis, Alico would record an impairment loss equal to the excess of the carrying value of the reporting unit’s goodwill over its implied fair value, should such a circumstance arise. As of September 30, 2020 and 2019, no impairment was required.
Other Non-Current Assets
Other non-current assets primarily include investments owned in agricultural cooperatives, cash surrender value on life insurance, and deposits on the purchase of citrus trees. Investments in stock related to agricultural cooperatives are carried at cost.
The Company uses the asset and liability method of accounting for deferred income taxes. The provision for income taxes includes income taxes currently payable and those deferred as a result of temporary differences between the financial statements and the income tax basis of assets and liabilities. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted income tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of a change in income tax rates on deferred income tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income or loss in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is provided to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount of future tax benefit when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Projected future taxable income and ongoing tax planning strategies are considered and evaluated when assessing the need for a valuation allowance. Any increase or decrease in a valuation allowance could have a material adverse or beneficial impact on the Company’s income tax provision and net income or loss in the period the determination is made. For the fiscal years ended September 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018, the Company recorded valuation allowances of $0, $0, and $5,634,000, respectively, relating to the unutilized capital loss carryforwards which expired. The Company recognizes interest and/or penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense.
The Company recognizes the effect of income tax positions only if those positions are more likely than not of being sustained. Recognized income tax positions are measured at the largest amount that is greater than 50% likely of being realized. Changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which a change in judgment occurs. The Company records interest related to unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense.
Earnings per Share
Basic earnings per share for the Company’s common stock is calculated by dividing net income attributable to Alico common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings per common share is similarly calculated, except that the calculation includes the dilutive effect of the assumed issuance of shares of common stock issuable under equity-based compensation plans in accordance with the treasury stock method, or any other type of securities convertible into common stock, except where the inclusion of such common shares would have an anti-dilutive effect.
The following table presents a reconciliation of basic to diluted weighted average common shares outstanding for fiscal years ended September 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018:
For the fiscal years ended September 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, the Company issued 118,000, 10,000, and 300,000, respectively, stock options to certain executives and managers of the Company. Non-vested restricted shares of common stock entitle the holder to receive non-forfeitable dividends upon issuance and are included in the calculation of diluted earnings per common share.
Stock-based compensation is measured based on the fair value of the equity award at the grant date and is typically expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period. Upon the vesting of restricted stock, the Company issues common stock from common shares held in treasury.
Total stock-based compensation expense for the three years ended September 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018 in general and administrative expense was as follows:
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef